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Autophagy is a process by which cellular material is degraded by lysosomes or vacuoles and recycled. Several autophagy pathways operate within a cell, including macroautophagy, microautophagy and chaperone-mediated autophagy.
Macroautophagy can regulate cell signalling and tumorigenesis but the molecular mechanisms are unclear. Here the authors show selective degradation of the signalling scaffold TRAF3 by autophagy and consequent activation of the NF-κB family member RELB regulate gene expression via antagonism of SMAD proteins.
Selective autophagy describes the selective degradation of cellular components upon stress or nutrient deficiency, but whether it modulates innate immunity is unclear. Here the authors show that Drosophila Kenny may be an evolution-selected autophagy receptor for the down-regulation of innate NF-κB activation
Accumulating evidence suggests that disruption of autophagy is associated with neurodegeneration. Here the authors show that Plekhg5 acts as a GEF for Rab26, a small GTPase that promotes the autophagy of synaptic vesicles in neurons; mice lacking Plekgh5 develop late-onset motoneuron degeneration.