Applied immunology

  • Article
    | Open Access

    Antibodies expressed in the cytosol often form insoluble aggregates, which makes it hard to target intracellular proteins. Here the authors engineer an ultra-stable cytoplasmic antibody (STAND) with a low isoelectric point that can be used in vivo.

    • Hiroyuki Kabayama
    • , Makoto Takeuchi
    • , Naoko Tokushige
    • , Shin-ichi Muramatsu
    • , Miyuki Kabayama
    • , Mitsunori Fukuda
    • , Yoshiyuki Yamada
    •  & Katsuhiko Mikoshiba
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Here, the authors meta-analyze clinical trials comparing adjuvanted and non-adjuvanted influenza vaccines in children and find that oil-in-water emulsion adjuvant improves the efficacy of inactivated influenza vaccines in healthy immunologically naive children.

    • Yu-Ju Lin
    • , Chiao-Ni Wen
    • , Ying-Ying Lin
    • , Wen-Chi Hsieh
    • , Chia-Chen Chang
    • , Yi-Hsuan Chen
    • , Chian-Hui Hsu
    • , Yun-Jui Shih
    • , Chang-Hsun Chen
    •  & Chi-Tai Fang
  • Article
    | Open Access

    A Zika virus vaccine should protect the fetus during pregnancy. Here, using a live-attenuated Zika vaccine, the authors show that a higher neutralizing antibody titer is required to protect from in utero transmission than to protect non-pregnant mice and that a single maternal immunization protects the fetus from infection and disease.

    • Chao Shan
    • , Xuping Xie
    • , Huanle Luo
    • , Antonio E. Muruato
    • , Yang Liu
    • , Maki Wakamiya
    • , Jun-Ho La
    • , Jin Mo Chung
    • , Scott C. Weaver
    • , Tian Wang
    •  & Pei-Yong Shi
  • Article
    | Open Access

    One measurement of tuberculosis vaccine efficacy in clinical trials is prevention of disease, but different mechanisms can underlie disease prevention. Here, the authors develop a mathematical model that allows to identify mechanisms of action of a vaccine preventing TB disease.

    • Mario Tovar
    • , Sergio Arregui
    • , Dessislava Marinova
    • , Carlos Martín
    • , Joaquín Sanz
    •  & Yamir Moreno
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Here, the authors identify a broadly neutralizing antibody from an HIV-infected person that recognizes the membrane-proximal external region (MPER) of HIV envelope glycoprotein (Env) and has a short CDRH3 and low polyreactivity. Structural analysis shows how the antibody binds the MPER and Env on the viral membrane.

    • Lei Zhang
    • , Adriana Irimia
    • , Lingling He
    • , Elise Landais
    • , Kimmo Rantalainen
    • , Daniel P. Leaman
    • , Thomas Vollbrecht
    • , Armando Stano
    • , Daniel I. Sands
    • , Arthur S. Kim
    • , George Miiro
    • , Jennifer Serwanga
    • , Anton Pozniak
    • , Dale McPhee
    • , Oliver Manigart
    • , Lawrence Mwananyanda
    • , Etienne Karita
    • , André Inwoley
    • , Walter Jaoko
    • , Jack DeHovitz
    • , Linda-Gail Bekker
    • , Punnee Pitisuttithum
    • , Robert Paris
    • , Susan Allen
    • , Pascal Poignard
    • , Dennis R. Burton
    • , Ben Murrell
    • , Andrew B. Ward
    • , Jiang Zhu
    • , Ian A. Wilson
    •  & Michael B. Zwick
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Successful anticancer immunotherapy should induce robust systemic immunity against metastases. Here, the authors engineer an inhalable nano-STING agonist, which synergizes with fractionated radiation to control lung metastases and confers long-term systemic antitumor immunity in mice.

    • Yang Liu
    • , William N. Crowe
    • , Lulu Wang
    • , Yong Lu
    • , W. Jeffrey Petty
    • , Amyn A. Habib
    •  & Dawen Zhao
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Recombinant MHC class II molecules are instrumental in antigen-specific T-cell identification assays and showed efficacy as experimental medicines. Here, the authors engineer MHC class II molecules with species-specific knob-into-hole heteromerization domains, enabling a translatable purification process with improved stability, yields, and biological potency.

    • Pau Serra
    • , Nahir Garabatos
    • , Santiswarup Singha
    • , César Fandos
    • , Josep Garnica
    • , Patricia Solé
    • , Daniel Parras
    • , Jun Yamanouchi
    • , Jesús Blanco
    • , Meritxell Tort
    • , Mireia Ortega
    • , Yang Yang
    • , Kristofor K. Ellestad
    •  & Pere Santamaria
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Many human antibodies that neutralize Zika virus recognize quaternary epitopes on the envelope (E) protein. Here, Metz et al. engineer stable recombinant homodimers of Zika virus E protein and show that it induces neutralizing antibodies in mice that recognize similar epitopes as human antibodies from Zika infected people.

    • Stefan W. Metz
    • , Ashlie Thomas
    • , Alex Brackbill
    • , John Forsberg
    • , Michael J. Miley
    • , Cesar A. Lopez
    • , Helen M. Lazear
    • , Shaomin Tian
    •  & Aravinda M. de Silva
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Here, Xue et al. identify N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification sites in RNAs of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and show that these sites, particularly sites in the transcript encoding for the viral glycoprotein, affect virus replication in primary human cells and cotton rats.

    • Miaoge Xue
    • , Boxuan Simen Zhao
    • , Zijie Zhang
    • , Mijia Lu
    • , Olivia Harder
    • , Phylip Chen
    • , Zhike Lu
    • , Anzhong Li
    • , Yuanmei Ma
    • , Yunsheng Xu
    • , Xueya Liang
    • , Jiyong Zhou
    • , Stefan Niewiesk
    • , Mark E. Peeples
    • , Chuan He
    •  & Jianrong Li
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Pfs25 is a transmission-blocking vaccine candidate for Plasmodium. Here, McLeod et al. analyze the antibody response to Pfs25 in sera from a clinical trial evaluating a Pfs25 vaccine candidate, identify a potent transmission-blocking antibody and determine recognized epitopes on Pfs25.

    • Brandon McLeod
    • , Kazutoyo Miura
    • , Stephen W. Scally
    • , Alexandre Bosch
    • , Ngan Nguyen
    • , Hanjun Shin
    • , Dongkyoon Kim
    • , Wayne Volkmuth
    • , Sebastian Rämisch
    • , Jessica A. Chichester
    • , Stephen Streatfield
    • , Colleen Woods
    • , William R. Schief
    • , Daniel Emerling
    • , C. Richter King
    •  & Jean-Philippe Julien
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Nanoparticles are a promising approach to increase immunogenicity of protein antigens for vaccines. Here, Brouwer et al. design self-assembling, two-component protein NPs that present native-like SOSIP trimers of HIV envelope protein and determine immunogenicity in a small animal model.

    • Philip J. M. Brouwer
    • , Aleksandar Antanasijevic
    • , Zachary Berndsen
    • , Anila Yasmeen
    • , Brooke Fiala
    • , Tom P. L. Bijl
    • , Ilja Bontjer
    • , Jacob B. Bale
    • , William Sheffler
    • , Joel D. Allen
    • , Anna Schorcht
    • , Judith A. Burger
    • , Miguel Camacho
    • , Daniel Ellis
    • , Christopher A. Cottrell
    • , Anna-Janina Behrens
    • , Marco Catalano
    • , Iván del Moral-Sánchez
    • , Thomas J. Ketas
    • , Celia LaBranche
    • , Marit J. van Gils
    • , Kwinten Sliepen
    • , Lance J. Stewart
    • , Max Crispin
    • , David C. Montefiori
    • , David Baker
    • , John P. Moore
    • , Per Johan Klasse
    • , Andrew B. Ward
    • , Neil P. King
    •  & Rogier W. Sanders
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Here, Minkah et al. show that, while immunization with replication-competent Plasmodium parasites can confer sterile protection against infection, it also induces a type I interferon response that adversely affects anti-malaria immunity by affecting numbers of protective hepatic CD8 T cells and CD8 T cell function.

    • Nana K. Minkah
    • , Brandon K. Wilder
    • , Amina A. Sheikh
    • , Thomas Martinson
    • , Lisa Wegmair
    • , Ashley M. Vaughan
    •  & Stefan H. I. Kappe
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Antibody cross-reactivity can help to prevent escape mutations from enabling viral escape, but underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here the authors identify influenza hemagglutinin epitopes that are exposed during viral replication and which result in the generation of a class of protective cross-reactive antibodies.

    • Yu Adachi
    • , Keisuke Tonouchi
    • , Arnone Nithichanon
    • , Masayuki Kuraoka
    • , Akiko Watanabe
    • , Ryo Shinnakasu
    • , Hideki Asanuma
    • , Akira Ainai
    • , Yusuke Ohmi
    • , Takuya Yamamoto
    • , Ken J. Ishii
    • , Hideki Hasegawa
    • , Haruko Takeyama
    • , Ganjana Lertmemongkolchai
    • , Tomohiro Kurosaki
    • , Manabu Ato
    • , Garnett Kelsoe
    •  & Yoshimasa Takahashi
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Here, the authors show that Zika virus (ZIKV) infection induces Th1-like Tfh cells that depend on T-bet for their development and are essential for class switching of ZIKV-specific IgG2c antibodies and maintenance of long-term neutralizing antibody responses.

    • Huabin Liang
    • , Jinyi Tang
    • , Zhihua Liu
    • , Yuanhua Liu
    • , Yuanyuan Huang
    • , Yongfen Xu
    • , Pei Hao
    • , Zhinan Yin
    • , Jin Zhong
    • , Lilin Ye
    • , Xia Jin
    •  & Haikun Wang
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) is an emerging tick-borne virus with no specific treatment or vaccine available. Here, the authors develop a DNA vaccine for SFTSV that is protective against lethal challenge in ferrets and show that anti-envelope antibodies are important for protection.

    • Jeong-Eun Kwak
    • , Young-Il Kim
    • , Su-Jin Park
    • , Min-Ah Yu
    • , Hyeok-Il Kwon
    • , Sukyeong Eo
    • , Tae-Shin Kim
    • , Joon Seok
    • , Won-Suk Choi
    • , Ju Hwan Jeong
    • , Hyojin Lee
    • , Youngran Cho
    • , Jin Ah Kwon
    • , Moonsup Jeong
    • , Joel N. Maslow
    • , Yong-Eun Kim
    • , Haili Jeon
    • , Kee K. Kim
    • , Eui-Cheol Shin
    • , Min-Suk Song
    • , Jae U. Jung
    • , Young Ki Choi
    •  & Su-Hyung Park
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Using a combination of single-cell RNA sequencing and TCR clonotype analysis on longitudinal samples from dengue vaccinated individuals, Waickman et al. here define a transcriptional signature in acutely-activated T cells that is associated with durable CD8+ T cell memory.

    • Adam T. Waickman
    • , Kaitlin Victor
    • , Tao Li
    • , Kristin Hatch
    • , Wiriya Rutvisuttinunt
    • , Carey Medin
    • , Benjamin Gabriel
    • , Richard G. Jarman
    • , Heather Friberg
    •  & Jeffrey R. Currier
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Here, Khurana et al. report the results of a phase 4 clinical trial with three FDA approved influenza vaccines and show that repeat influenza vaccination results in reduced antibody affinity maturation to hemagglutinin domain 1 irrespective of vaccine platform.

    • Surender Khurana
    • , Megan Hahn
    • , Elizabeth M. Coyle
    • , Lisa R. King
    • , Tsai-Lien Lin
    • , John Treanor
    • , Andrea Sant
    •  & Hana Golding
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The authors show an important role for iron in B cell proliferation via histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9) demethylation at the cyclin E1 promoter. Using a measles vaccination murine model, they show that iron-deficient individuals have a significantly reduced antibody response to the vaccine when compared to iron-normal controls.

    • Yuhang Jiang
    • , Cuifeng Li
    • , Qian Wu
    • , Peng An
    • , Laiquan Huang
    • , Jia Wang
    • , Chen Chen
    • , Xi Chen
    • , Fan Zhang
    • , Li Ma
    • , Sanhong Liu
    • , Hanqing He
    • , Shuyun Xie
    • , Yangbai Sun
    • , Hanshao Liu
    • , Yu Zhan
    • , Yu Tao
    • , Zhi Liu
    • , Xiaohua Sun
    • , Yiming Hu
    • , Qi Wang
    • , Deji Ye
    • , Jie Zhang
    • , Shanhua Zou
    • , Ying Wang
    • , Gang Wei
    • , Yongzhong Liu
    • , Yufang Shi
    • , Y. Eugene Chin
    • , Yongqiang Hao
    • , Fudi Wang
    •  & Xiaoren Zhang
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Here, the authors report that specific monoclonal antibodies isolated from vaccinated rhesus macaques can neutralize a subset of Tier 2 difficult-to-neutralize HIV-1 that express Env in an open conformation, suggesting that V3 loop-specific targeting can bias the estimation of vaccine-induced bnAbs.

    • Qifeng Han
    • , Julia A. Jones
    • , Nathan I. Nicely
    • , Rachel K. Reed
    • , Xiaoying Shen
    • , Katayoun Mansouri
    • , Mark Louder
    • , Ashley M. Trama
    • , S. Munir Alam
    • , Robert J. Edwards
    • , Mattia Bonsignori
    • , Georgia D. Tomaras
    • , Bette Korber
    • , David C. Montefiori
    • , John R. Mascola
    • , Michael S. Seaman
    • , Barton F. Haynes
    •  & Kevin O. Saunders
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Stabilized, native-like trimers of the HIV envelope protein, such as SOSIP trimers, are potential antigens for an HIV vaccine. Here, the authors generate a SOSIP trimer based on the consensus sequence of group M isolates, determine its structure and exposure of common epitopes, and show immunogenicity in rabbits and non-human primates.

    • Kwinten Sliepen
    • , Byung Woo Han
    • , Ilja Bontjer
    • , Petra Mooij
    • , Fernando Garces
    • , Anna-Janina Behrens
    • , Kimmo Rantalainen
    • , Sonu Kumar
    • , Anita Sarkar
    • , Philip J. M. Brouwer
    • , Yuanzi Hua
    • , Monica Tolazzi
    • , Edith Schermer
    • , Jonathan L. Torres
    • , Gabriel Ozorowski
    • , Patricia van der Woude
    • , Alba Torrents de la Peña
    • , Mariëlle J. van Breemen
    • , Juan Miguel Camacho-Sánchez
    • , Judith A. Burger
    • , Max Medina-Ramírez
    • , Nuria González
    • , Jose Alcami
    • , Celia LaBranche
    • , Gabriella Scarlatti
    • , Marit J. van Gils
    • , Max Crispin
    • , David C. Montefiori
    • , Andrew B. Ward
    • , Gerrit Koopman
    • , John P. Moore
    • , Robin J. Shattock
    • , Willy M. Bogers
    • , Ian A. Wilson
    •  & Rogier W. Sanders
  • Article
    | Open Access

    RTS,S/AS01E has been tested in a phase 3 malaria vaccine trial and has shown partial efficacy in children and infants. Here, the authors analyze IgG concentration and avidity to CSP in ~1000 participants and show that IgG avidity to the C-terminus of CSP is significantly associated with vaccine-mediated protection.

    • Carlota Dobaño
    • , Hèctor Sanz
    • , Hermann Sorgho
    • , David Dosoo
    • , Maximilian Mpina
    • , Itziar Ubillos
    • , Ruth Aguilar
    • , Tom Ford
    • , Núria Díez-Padrisa
    • , Nana Aba Williams
    • , Aintzane Ayestaran
    • , Ousmane Traore
    • , Augusto J. Nhabomba
    • , Chenjerai Jairoce
    • , John Waitumbi
    • , Selidji Todagbe Agnandji
    • , Simon Kariuki
    • , Salim Abdulla
    • , John J. Aponte
    • , Benjamin Mordmüller
    • , Kwaku Poku Asante
    • , Seth Owusu-Agyei
    • , Halidou Tinto
    • , Joseph J. Campo
    • , Gemma Moncunill
    • , Ben Gyan
    • , Clarissa Valim
    •  & Claudia Daubenberger
  • Article
    | Open Access

    A good vaccine should direct the immune response to virus regions that are most difficult to escape. Here, Quadeer et al. develop a predictive in-silico evolutionary model for HCV E2 which identifies one such antigenic region and identifies multiple broadly neutralizing human antibodies that appear difficult to escape from.

    • Ahmed A. Quadeer
    • , Raymond H. Y. Louie
    •  & Matthew R. McKay
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Proof of protection against blood-stage P. falciparum malaria by a single immunological mechanism has been elusive. Here, using engineered anti-PfRH5 chimeric monoclonal antibodies in non-human primates, the authors show that high levels of merozoite-neutralizing antibodies can achieve protection.

    • Alexander D. Douglas
    • , G. Christian Baldeviano
    • , Jing Jin
    • , Kazutoyo Miura
    • , Ababacar Diouf
    • , Zenon A. Zenonos
    • , Julio A. Ventocilla
    • , Sarah E. Silk
    • , Jennifer M. Marshall
    • , Daniel G. W. Alanine
    • , Chuan Wang
    • , Nick J. Edwards
    • , Karina P. Leiva
    • , Luis A. Gomez-Puerta
    • , Carmen M. Lucas
    • , Gavin J. Wright
    • , Carole A. Long
    • , Joseph M. Royal
    •  & Simon J. Draper
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The success of vaccination programs depends largely on the mechanisms used in vaccine delivery. Here, the authors evaluate the relative effectiveness of two major vaccine delivery strategies, namely routine immunization and supplementary immunization activities in five study countries.

    • C. Edson Utazi
    • , Julia Thorley
    • , Victor A. Alegana
    • , Matthew J. Ferrari
    • , Saki Takahashi
    • , C. Jessica E. Metcalf
    • , Justin Lessler
    • , Felicity T. Cutts
    •  & Andrew J. Tatem
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Here, the authors isolate over 800 RSV F-specific antibodies from paired nasopharyngeal tonsil and peripheral blood samples from four young children undergoing adenoidectomy and find that adenoid derived antibodies have overall higher binding affinities and neutralization potencies.

    • Laila Shehata
    • , Wendy F. Wieland-Alter
    • , Daniel P. Maurer
    • , Eunice Chen
    • , Ruth I. Connor
    • , Peter F. Wright
    •  & Laura M. Walker
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Development of a HCV vaccine is hampered by a lack of appropriate small animal models. Here, Hartlage et al. describe a rat model of hepacivirus persistence and show that persistence can be prevented by vaccination with viral non-structural proteins.

    • Alex S. Hartlage
    • , Satyapramod Murthy
    • , Arvind Kumar
    • , Sheetal Trivedi
    • , Piyush Dravid
    • , Himanshu Sharma
    • , Christopher M. Walker
    •  & Amit Kapoor
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Areas of HIV envelope (Env) that aren’t covered by glycans are potential targets for antibodies. Here, the authors computationally design small protein mimics of four such epitopes and show that they can induce Env binding antibodies in rabbits.

    • Cheng Zhu
    • , Elena Dukhovlinova
    • , Olivia Council
    • , Lihua Ping
    • , Edgar M. Faison
    • , Shamit S. Prabhu
    • , E. Lake Potter
    • , Stephen L. Upton
    • , Guowei Yin
    • , James M. Fay
    • , Laura P. Kincer
    • , Ean Spielvogel
    • , Sharon L. Campbell
    • , S. Rahima Benhabbour
    • , Hengming Ke
    • , Ronald Swanstrom
    •  & Nikolay V. Dokholyan
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Bioconjugation is a promising process to manufacture conjugate vaccines, but currently employed enzymes cannot generate the full spectrum of bacterial glycoproteins. Here, the authors use an O-linking oligosaccharyltransferase to generate a polyvalent pneumococcal bioconjugate vaccine with polysaccharides containing glucose at their reducing end.

    • Christian M. Harding
    • , Mohamed A. Nasr
    • , Nichollas E. Scott
    • , Guillaume Goyette-Desjardins
    • , Harald Nothaft
    • , Anne E. Mayer
    • , Sthefany M. Chavez
    • , Jeremy P. Huynh
    • , Rachel L. Kinsella
    • , Christine M. Szymanski
    • , Christina L. Stallings
    • , Mariela Segura
    •  & Mario F. Feldman
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The RV144 vaccine trial showed reduced risk of HIV-1 acquisition, but mechanisms underlying protection are poorly understood. Here, Fourati et al. assess the transcriptomic profile of blood collected from 223 vaccinees and 40 placebo recipients and identify IRF7 as a mediator of protection.

    • Slim Fourati
    • , Susan Pereira Ribeiro
    • , Filipa Blasco Tavares Pereira Lopes
    • , Aarthi Talla
    • , Francois Lefebvre
    • , Mark Cameron
    • , J. Kaewkungwal
    • , P. Pitisuttithum
    • , S. Nitayaphan
    • , S. Rerks-Ngarm
    • , Jerome H. Kim
    • , Rasmi Thomas
    • , Peter B. Gilbert
    • , Georgia D. Tomaras
    • , Richard A. Koup
    • , Nelson L. Michael
    • , M. Juliana McElrath
    • , Raphael Gottardo
    •  & Rafick-Pierre Sékaly
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Immune activation induces long-term alterations of setpoints, impacting responses to subsequent unrelated stimuli. Here the authors show that volunteers vaccinated with BCG respond to controlled human malaria infection with increased clinical symptoms and an inverse correlation between immune activation markers and parasitemia.

    • Jona Walk
    • , L. Charlotte J. de Bree
    • , Wouter Graumans
    • , Rianne Stoter
    • , Geert-Jan van Gemert
    • , Marga van de Vegte-Bolmer
    • , Karina Teelen
    • , Cornelus C. Hermsen
    • , Rob J. W. Arts
    • , Marije C. Behet
    • , Farid Keramati
    • , Simone J. C. F. M. Moorlag
    • , Annie S. P. Yang
    • , Reinout van Crevel
    • , Peter Aaby
    • , Quirijn de Mast
    • , André J. A. M. van der Ven
    • , Christine Stabell Benn
    • , Mihai G. Netea
    •  & Robert W. Sauerwein
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Oral vaccination is a potential option to elicit systemic and mucosal immunity against HIV. Here, Jones et al. show that oral vaccination with a modified needle-free injector induces protective immunity against SHIV in non-human primates and is superior to topical application of vaccines to oral tissues.

    • Andrew T. Jones
    • , Xiaoying Shen
    • , Korey L. Walter
    • , Celia C. LaBranche
    • , Linda S. Wyatt
    • , Georgia D. Tomaras
    • , David C. Montefiori
    • , Bernard Moss
    • , Dan H. Barouch
    • , John D. Clements
    • , Pamela A. Kozlowski
    • , Raghavan Varadarajan
    •  & Rama Rao Amara
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Adenovirus based (AdV) vectors are promising platforms for therapeutics and vaccines, but receptor usage of serotypes in clinical development remains unclear. Here, based on crystal structures and modeling, Baker et al. show that HAdV-D26/48 fiber knob protein interacts weakly with CAR but not with CD46 or DSG2.

    • Alexander T. Baker
    • , Alexander Greenshields-Watson
    • , Lynda Coughlan
    • , James A. Davies
    • , Hanni Uusi-Kerttula
    • , David K. Cole
    • , Pierre J. Rizkallah
    •  & Alan L. Parker
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation is a desirable treatment for many non-malignant and malignant diseases, but its use requires preconditioning of recipients with irradiation or chemotherapy that often induces high toxicity. Here the authors show that antibody-drug-conjugate to CD117, a HSC marker, allows specific and efficient preconditioning for HSC therapy.

    • Agnieszka Czechowicz
    • , Rahul Palchaudhuri
    • , Amelia Scheck
    • , Yu Hu
    • , Jonathan Hoggatt
    • , Borja Saez
    • , Wendy W. Pang
    • , Michael K. Mansour
    • , Tiffany A. Tate
    • , Yan Yi Chan
    • , Emily Walck
    • , Gerlinde Wernig
    • , Judith A. Shizuru
    • , Florian Winau
    • , David T. Scadden
    •  & Derrick J. Rossi
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum merozoites that fix complement can inhibit blood-stage replication. Here, Reiling et al. show that complement-fixing antibodies strongly correlate with protective immunity in children, identify the merozoite targets, and predict antigen combinations that should result in strong protection.

    • Linda Reiling
    • , Michelle J. Boyle
    • , Michael T. White
    • , Danny W. Wilson
    • , Gaoqian Feng
    • , Rupert Weaver
    • , D. Herbert Opi
    • , Kristina E. M. Persson
    • , Jack S. Richards
    • , Peter M. Siba
    • , Freya J. I. Fowkes
    • , Eizo Takashima
    • , Takafumi Tsuboi
    • , Ivo Mueller
    •  & James G. Beeson
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Giardia lamblia express a dense coat of variant-specific surface proteins (VSPs) on trophozoites that protects the parasite inside the host´s intestine. Here the authors show that stability and immunomodulatory properties of VSPs can be exploited to both protect and adjuvant vaccine antigens for oral administration.

    • Marianela C. Serradell
    • , Lucía L. Rupil
    • , Román A. Martino
    • , César G. Prucca
    • , Pedro G. Carranza
    • , Alicia Saura
    • , Elmer A. Fernández
    • , Pablo R. Gargantini
    • , Albano H. Tenaglia
    • , Juan P. Petiti
    • , Renata R. Tonelli
    • , Nicolás Reinoso-Vizcaino
    • , José Echenique
    • , Luciana Berod
    • , Eliane Piaggio
    • , Bertrand Bellier
    • , Tim Sparwasser
    • , David Klatzmann
    •  & Hugo D. Luján
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Immune recognition of Influenza B virus (IBV) is poorly understood. Here, Liu et al. use flow cytometry to characterize IBV-specific memory B cell responses following seasonal vaccination and show that elicited cross-reactive antibodies can protect against infection, providing a platform for vaccine design.

    • Yi Liu
    • , Hyon-Xhi Tan
    • , Marios Koutsakos
    • , Sinthujan Jegaskanda
    • , Robyn Esterbauer
    • , Danielle Tilmanis
    • , Malet Aban
    • , Katherine Kedzierska
    • , Aeron C. Hurt
    • , Stephen J. Kent
    •  & Adam K. Wheatley
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Relevance of indirect protection of household members of vaccinees is unclear. Here, Tsang et al. quantify the direct and indirect protection of vaccination in a randomized controlled trial and show that benefits of individual vaccination remain important even when other household members are vaccinated.

    • Tim K. Tsang
    • , Vicky J. Fang
    • , Dennis K. M. Ip
    • , Ranawaka A. P. M. Perera
    • , Hau Chi So
    • , Gabriel M. Leung
    • , J. S. Malik Peiris
    • , Benjamin J. Cowling
    •  & Simon Cauchemez
  • Article
    | Open Access

    More than 18 human papillomaviruses (HPV) are associated with cervical cancer, and ideally vaccines should protect from all of them. Here, the authors engineer a triple-type, chimeric HPV vaccine, using loop swapping, that elicits robust neutralizing antibody titers in mice and non-human primates.

    • Zhihai Li
    • , Shuo Song
    • , Maozhou He
    • , Daning Wang
    • , Jingjie Shi
    • , Xinlin Liu
    • , Yunbing Li
    • , Xin Chi
    • , Shuangping Wei
    • , Yurou Yang
    • , Zhiping Wang
    • , Jinjin Li
    • , Huilian Qian
    • , Hai Yu
    • , Qingbing Zheng
    • , Xiaodong Yan
    • , Qinjian Zhao
    • , Jun Zhang
    • , Ying Gu
    • , Shaowei Li
    •  & Ningshao Xia
  • Article
    | Open Access

    The mechanisms of ZIKV persistence in the male reproductive tract (MRT) are poorly understood. Here, Tsetsarkin et al. applied microRNA-targeting approach to trace routes of ZIKV dissemination in the testis and epididymis and to generate immunogenic live-attenuated ZIKV vaccine candidate, restricted for MRT infection.

    • Konstantin A. Tsetsarkin
    • , Olga A. Maximova
    • , Guangping Liu
    • , Heather Kenney
    • , Natalia Teterina
    • , Marshall E. Bloom
    • , Jeffrey M. Grabowski
    • , Luwanika Mlera
    • , Bianca M. Nagata
    • , Ian Moore
    • , Craig Martens
    • , Emerito Amaro-Carambot
    • , Elaine W. Lamirande
    • , Stephen S. Whitehead
    •  & Alexander G. Pletnev
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Antigen present and presented in the structures of the skin can result in immune responses that elicit tolerance, protective immunity or allergy, depending on the immunological context. Here the authors describe a key role for the hair follicle and CD11b+ dendritic cells in the priming of local antigenic tolerance.

    • Leticia Tordesillas
    • , Daniel Lozano-Ojalvo
    • , David Dunkin
    • , Lucie Mondoulet
    • , Judith Agudo
    • , Miriam Merad
    • , Hugh A. Sampson
    •  & M. Cecilia Berin
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Tumours can escape CD8 T-cell immunity by down-regulating antigen presentation machinery components, such as TAP. Here the authors describe tumour antigenic peptides processed by TAP-independent and -dependent pathways and show in mouse models that these peptides can be exploited to induce antitumor T-cell activity when TAP expression is downregulated.

    • Aurélie Durgeau
    • , Yasemin Virk
    • , Gwendoline Gros
    • , Elodie Voilin
    • , Stéphanie Corgnac
    • , Fayçal Djenidi
    • , Jérôme Salmon
    • , Julien Adam
    • , Vincent de Montpréville
    • , Pierre Validire
    • , Soldano Ferrone
    • , Salem Chouaib
    • , Alexander Eggermont
    • , Jean-Charles Soria
    • , François Lemonnier
    • , Eric Tartour
    • , Nathalie Chaput
    • , Benjamin Besse
    •  & Fathia Mami-Chouaib
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Humanized mice are an enabling technology to explore human immunity and disease. Here, Douam et al. provide an in-depth comparison of immune responses to yellow fever vaccine in human vaccinees, conventional and second-generation humanized mice and define a workflow to evaluate and refine these models.

    • Florian Douam
    • , Carly G. K. Ziegler
    • , Gabriela Hrebikova
    • , Bruno Fant
    • , Robert Leach
    • , Lance Parsons
    • , Wei Wang
    • , Jenna M. Gaska
    • , Benjamin Y. Winer
    • , Brigitte Heller
    • , Alex K. Shalek
    •  & Alexander Ploss
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Neonatal rotavirus infections are associated with gastrointestinal symptoms in some settings, but the role of host factors in clinical presentation is unclear. Here, Ramani et al. show that human milk oligosaccharides and microbiome are associated with symptomatic infection with neonatal strain G10P[11].

    • Sasirekha Ramani
    • , Christopher J. Stewart
    • , Daniel R. Laucirica
    • , Nadim J. Ajami
    • , Bianca Robertson
    • , Chloe A. Autran
    • , Dhairyasheel Shinge
    • , Sandya Rani
    • , Sasirekha Anandan
    • , Liya Hu
    • , Josephine C. Ferreon
    • , Kurien A. Kuruvilla
    • , Joseph F. Petrosino
    • , B. V. Venkataram Prasad
    • , Lars Bode
    • , Gagandeep Kang
    •  & Mary K. Estes
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Studying the uterine lymphocyte pool is difficult due to its dynamic nature induced by various pregnancy-related factors. Here the authors provide, using transcriptome data from sorted mouse group 1 innate lymphoid cells (ILC), a molecular atlas of these cells, which implicates tissue-resident natural killer cells as a hub for uterine immune crosstalk.

    • Iva Filipovic
    • , Laura Chiossone
    • , Paola Vacca
    • , Russell S. Hamilton
    • , Tiziano Ingegnere
    • , Jean-Marc Doisne
    • , Delia A. Hawkes
    • , Maria Cristina Mingari
    • , Andrew M. Sharkey
    • , Lorenzo Moretta
    •  & Francesco Colucci
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Antibodies blocking the V1V2 domain of HIV Envelope from binding integrin are associated with positive disease outcomes. Here, Wibmer et al. determine the structure of full length V1V2 bound to these antibodies, revealing an alternative fold of V1V2 with exposed integrin-binding sites that functions on non-native Envelope.

    • Constantinos Kurt Wibmer
    • , Simone I. Richardson
    • , Jason Yolitz
    • , Claudia Cicala
    • , James Arthos
    • , Penny L. Moore
    •  & Lynn Morris
  • Article
    | Open Access

    There is currently no approved vaccine for Lassa fever virus (LASV). Here, Abreu-Mota et al. develop an inactivated, adjuvanted vaccine candidate expressing LASV glycoprotein (GPC) in a rabies virus vector, and show that non-neutralizing LASV GPC-specific antibodies are a major mechanism of protection.

    • Tiago Abreu-Mota
    • , Katie R. Hagen
    • , Kurt Cooper
    • , Peter B. Jahrling
    • , Gene Tan
    • , Christoph Wirblich
    • , Reed F. Johnson
    •  & Matthias J. Schnell
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Immunogenicity of AAV vectors renders repeated AAV dosing ineffective. Here the authors show that coadministration of nanoparticle-encapsulated rapamycin overcomes AAV immunogenicity through Treg induction, enabling efficient AAV redosing in mice and nonhuman primates.

    • Amine Meliani
    • , Florence Boisgerault
    • , Romain Hardet
    • , Solenne Marmier
    • , Fanny Collaud
    • , Giuseppe Ronzitti
    • , Christian Leborgne
    • , Helena Costa Verdera
    • , Marcelo Simon Sola
    • , Severine Charles
    • , Alban Vignaud
    • , Laetitia van Wittenberghe
    • , Giorgia Manni
    • , Olivier Christophe
    • , Francesca Fallarino
    • , Christopher Roy
    • , Alicia Michaud
    • , Petr Ilyinskii
    • , Takashi Kei Kishimoto
    •  & Federico Mingozzi
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Current anti-venoms against black mamba (Dendroaspis polylepis) bites are animal-derived and associated with several limitations. Here, Laustsen and colleagues develop an experimental recombinant anti-venom based on oligoclonal human IgG antibodies and establish its potential protective value in neutralizing dendrotoxin-mediated neurotoxicity using venom challenge in vivo models.

    • Andreas H. Laustsen
    • , Aneesh Karatt-Vellatt
    • , Edward W. Masters
    • , Ana Silvia Arias
    • , Urska Pus
    • , Cecilie Knudsen
    • , Saioa Oscoz
    • , Peter Slavny
    • , Daniel T. Griffiths
    • , Alice M. Luther
    • , Rachael A. Leah
    • , Majken Lindholm
    • , Bruno Lomonte
    • , José María Gutiérrez
    •  & John McCafferty
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Engineered neutralizing antibodies are potential therapeutics for numerous viruses, such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Here, the authors develop an mRNA-based approach to express membrane-anchored neutralizing antibodies in the lung and demonstrate that it inhibits RSV infections in mice.

    • Pooja Munnilal Tiwari
    • , Daryll Vanover
    • , Kevin E. Lindsay
    • , Swapnil Subhash Bawage
    • , Jonathan L. Kirschman
    • , Sushma Bhosle
    • , Aaron W. Lifland
    • , Chiara Zurla
    •  & Philip J. Santangelo
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Current influenza vaccine approaches largely focus on highly variable epitopes with high immunogenicity or epitopes of low variability that often have low immunogenicity. Here, Thompson et al. identify a highly immunogenic epitope of limited variability in the head domain of the H1 haemagglutinin and show protection from diverse H1N1 strains in mice.

    • Craig P. Thompson
    • , José Lourenço
    • , Adam A. Walters
    • , Uri Obolski
    • , Matthew Edmans
    • , Duncan S. Palmer
    • , Kreepa Kooblall
    • , George W. Carnell
    • , Daniel O’Connor
    • , Thomas A. Bowden
    • , Oliver G. Pybus
    • , Andrew J. Pollard
    • , Nigel J. Temperton
    • , Teresa Lambe
    • , Sarah C. Gilbert
    •  & Sunetra Gupta