Antivirals

Antivirals are substances that inhibit virus infection or replication. Antivirals can be used as drugs to prevent or treat diseases caused by viruses.

Latest Research and Reviews

  • Reviews |

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of lower respiratory tract disease in young children and elderly people. In this Review, Battles and McLellan summarize our current understanding of RSV entry, describe progress on the development of new interventions and conclude with a perspective on gaps in our knowledge that require further investigation.

    • Michael B. Battles
    •  & Jason S. McLellan
  • Research | | open

    Viruses rely on host cell metabolism for replication, making these pathways potential therapeutic targets. Here, the authors show that AM580, a retinoid derivative and RAR-α agonist, affects replication of several RNA viruses by interfering with the activity of SREBP.

    • Shuofeng Yuan
    • , Hin Chu
    • , Jasper Fuk-Woo Chan
    • , Zi-Wei Ye
    • , Lei Wen
    • , Bingpeng Yan
    • , Pok-Man Lai
    • , Kah-Meng Tee
    • , Jingjing Huang
    • , Dongdong Chen
    • , Cun Li
    • , Xiaoyu Zhao
    • , Dong Yang
    • , Man Chun Chiu
    • , Cyril Yip
    • , Vincent Kwok-Man Poon
    • , Chris Chung-Sing Chan
    • , Kong-Hung Sze
    • , Jie Zhou
    • , Ivy Hau-Yee Chan
    • , Kin-Hang Kok
    • , Kelvin Kai-Wang To
    • , Richard Yi-Tsun Kao
    • , Johnson Yiu-Nam Lau
    • , Dong-Yan Jin
    • , Stanley Perlman
    •  & Kwok-Yung Yuen
  • Research | | open

    The latent HIV-1 reservoir is the key obstacle for curing HIV-1 infection, but the timepoint at which the HIV-1 reservoir is established is currently unclear. Here, Whitney et al. show in non-human primates that the SIV reservoir in CD4+ T cells is seeded within the first 2 days after infection.

    • James B. Whitney
    • , So-Yon Lim
    • , Christa E. Osuna
    • , Jessica L. Kublin
    • , Elsa Chen
    • , Gyeol Yoon
    • , Po-Ting Liu
    • , Peter Abbink
    • , Erica N. Borducci
    • , Alison Hill
    • , Mark G. Lewis
    • , Romas Geleziunas
    • , Merlin L. Robb
    • , Nelson L. Michael
    •  & Dan H. Barouch
  • Research | | open

    Long-acting (LA) formulations of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs are an alternative approach to improve adherence for HIV treatment and prevention. Here the authors show a removable biodegradable ultra-LA-ARV drug system that effectively delivers drug, controls viremia and prevents infection in animal models of HIV infection.

    • Martina Kovarova
    • , S. Rahima Benhabbour
    • , Ivana Massud
    • , Rae Ann Spagnuolo
    • , Brianna Skinner
    • , Caroline E. Baker
    • , Craig Sykes
    • , Katie R. Mollan
    • , Angela D. M. Kashuba
    • , J. Gerardo García-Lerma
    • , Russell J. Mumper
    •  & J. Victor Garcia
  • Research | | open

    Safety and efficacy remain important challenges for non-antiretroviral-based microbicides. Here, Derby et al. show that a Griffithsin-Carrageenan fast dissolving vaginal insert provides on-demand protection against SHIV infections in macaques, paving the way for the development of pre-exposure prophylaxis on-demand products.

    • Nina Derby
    • , Manjari Lal
    • , Meropi Aravantinou
    • , Larisa Kizima
    • , Patrick Barnable
    • , Aixa Rodriguez
    • , Manshun Lai
    • , Asa Wesenberg
    • , Shweta Ugaonkar
    • , Keith Levendosky
    • , Olga Mizenina
    • , Kyle Kleinbeck
    • , Jeffrey D. Lifson
    • , M. Melissa Peet
    • , Zachary Lloyd
    • , Michael Benson
    • , Walid Heneine
    • , Barry R O’Keefe
    • , Melissa Robbiani
    • , Elena Martinelli
    • , Brooke Grasperge
    • , James Blanchard
    • , Agegnehu Gettie
    • , Natalia Teleshova
    • , José A. Fernández-Romero
    •  & Thomas M. Zydowsky

News and Comment

  • News and Views |

    Innovative solutions are needed to overcome the global disparity in patients awaiting kidney transplantation versus donor organs available. A new study reports a promising new strategy of transplanting kidneys from HCV-infected donors into HCV-uninfected recipients and treating their HCV with direct-acting antivirals post-transplant — recipients achieved HCV cure with excellent one-year kidney allograft function.

    • Allison J. Kwong
    •  & Norah A. Terrault
  • Comments and Opinion |

    More than 250 million people worldwide are chronically infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV). In this Comment, members of the International Coalition to Eliminate HBV appraise the current policy environment and the need for appropriate cure research and preparedness to complement the WHO global elimination strategy, the HBV vaccine and the well-tolerated but poorly accessed therapy.

    • Jeffrey V. Lazarus
    • , Timothy Block
    • , Christian Bréchot
    • , Anna Kramvis
    • , Veronica Miller
    • , Michael Ninburg
    • , Capucine Pénicaud
    • , Ulrike Protzer
    • , Homie Razavi
    • , Laura A. Thomas
    • , Jack Wallace
    •  & Benjamin C. Cowie
  • News and Views |

    Antibodies that potently neutralize highly diverse HIV-1 variants offer great potential for therapy and prevention. Passive administration of HIV-specific neutralizing antibodies genetically modified to have a long serum half-life has now been shown to confer long-lasting protection from infection in the rhesus macaque model.

    • Michelle Zanoni
    • , David Palesch
    •  & Guido Silvestri
    Nature Microbiology 3, 648-649
  • News and Views |

    Topical administration of aminoglycoside antibiotics has been shown to induce expression of interferon-stimulated genes in dendritic cells, inducing an antiviral state in the vaginal and lung mucosa that increases resistance to infection with herpes simplex virus 1, influenza and Zika viruses.

    • Jeffrey I. Cohen
    Nature Microbiology 3, 531-532
  • News and Views |

    Influenza B virus causes substantial illness globally, particularly in children. Treatment options are limited, as the most widely used antiviral drug appears to be less effective than against influenza A. A new antibody targeting the influenza B neuraminidase shows promise in mice as a therapeutic option.

    • Aeron C. Hurt
    •  & Kanta Subbarao
    Nature Microbiology 2, 1342-1343