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Adult stem cells are cells in the adult that can both self-renew by dividing and give rise to more specialised cell types present in the tissue in which they reside. They serve to maintain and repair the tissue.
Epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation, play an important role in adult neurogenesis. Here the authors show that Tet2, which converts 5mC to 5hmC, interacts with the transcription factor Foxo3a and regulates critical genes related to the proliferation and differentiation of adult neural stem cells.
The vascular stem cell niche regulates the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) in the adult subventricular zone. Here the authors identify EGFL7 as a neurovascular regulator of NSCs in vivo; EGFL7-knockout mice show reduced neurogenesis, and exhibit impaired olfactory perception and behaviour.
Volumetric muscle loss leads to functional muscle impairment, and current stem cell-based treatments show limited efficacy. Here, the authors generate a stem cell scaffold, implant it in mice, and show that an exercise regimen enhances innervation and restoration of muscle function in mice.
Several markers of gastric stem cells have been identified in recent years. Now a study demonstrates that Lgr5 marks a population of reserve stem cells located at the base of the corpus glands of the gastric epithelium, and that these cells can also act as a cell-of-origin for gastric tumorigenesis.
The involvement of proliferation and migration in epidermal healing has long been recognized, but three studies now reveal how a variety of individual cell behaviours achieve a collective epithelial response, and how diverse repair routes are taken by cells of different origins.
Little is known regarding how the interactions of stem cells with the immune system regulate their plasticity. A study now describes a mechanism by which normal breast and cancer stem cells utilize miR-199a to downregulate the corepressor LCOR and minimize responses to type I interferon.