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An adjuvant is a substance that is added to a vaccine to enhance the vaccine's efficacy. Adjuvants can, for example, stimulate the immune response to the antigen in the vaccine or stabilize the vaccine formulation.
Giardia lamblia express a dense coat of variant-specific surface proteins (VSPs) on trophozoites that protects the parasite inside the host´s intestine. Here the authors show that stability and immunomodulatory properties of VSPs can be exploited to both protect and adjuvant vaccine antigens for oral administration.
A vaccine platform developed from a synthetic polymeric glyco-adjuvant and reversibly conjugated to an antigen was shown to target dendritic cells leading to cellular and humoral immune response against malaria.