Abiotic factors are non-living chemical and physical elements in the environment, which affect individual organisms as well as ecosystems. Examples are UV, IR and visible light, radiation, temperature, wind, humidity, water, pH, heavy metals, atmospheric gases, soil chemicals, and, more generally, climate.

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    Hypoxia has long been studied in relation to anaerobic metabolism. It has now been shown to control development, acting as a cue to maintain the seedling's protective apical hook and a trigger of developmental decisions both before and after the plantlet emerges from the soil into the light.

    • Laurentius A. C. Voesenek
    •  & Julia Bailey-Serres
    Nature Plants 1, 15095