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27 March 1997, Volume 14, Number 12, Pages 1445-1451
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ERF: Genomic organization, chromosomal localization and promoter analysis of the human and mouse genes
Derong Liu1, Elias Pavlopoulos2, William Modi1, Nickolas Moschonas2 and George Mavrothalassitis3,a

1SAIC, National Cancer Institute-FCRDC, Frederick, Maryland 21702-1201, USA

2Department of Biology, University of Crete, and Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, FORTH, Heraklion, Crete, Greece 71-110

3Laboratory of Molecular Oncology, National Cancer Institute-FCRDC, Frederick, Maryland 21702-1201, USA

aAuthor for correspondence


ERF (Ets2 Repressor Factor) is a ubiquitously expressed ets-domain protein that exhibits strong transcriptional repressor activity, has been shown to suppress ets-induced transformation and has been suggested to be regulated by MAPK phosphorylation. We report here the sequence of the mouse gene, the genomic organization of the human and the mouse genes, their chromosomal position and the analysis of the promoter region. Genomic clones encompassing either the human ERF or the mouse Erf gene were isolated and utilized to define their molecular organization. The gene in both species consists of 4 exons over a 10 kb region. Utilizing FISH, somatic cell hybrids and linkage analysis, we identified the chromosomal position of ERF on human chromosome 19q13.1 and on its syntenic region in the mouse, on chromosome 7. Sequence analysis of the mouse gene indicated a 90% identity to the human gene within the coding and promoter regions. The predicted Erf protein is 98% identical to the human protein and all of the identifiable motifs are conserved between the two proteins. However, the mouse protein is three amino acids longer (551 versus 548 aa). The area surrounding the region that is homologous to the 5' end of the human cDNA can serve as a promoter in transfection into eukaryotic cells. This region is highly conserved between the mouse and the human genes. A number of conserved transcription factor binding sites can be identified in the region including an ets binding site (EBS). Interestingly, removal of a small segment that includes the EBS, seriously hampers promoter function, suggesting the ERF transcription may be regulated by ets-domain proteins.


ets; transcriptional repressor; genomic organization; promoter

Received 28 May 1999; revised 31 October 1999; accepted 15 November 1999
27 March 1997, Volume 14, Number 12, Pages 1445-1451
Table of contents    Previous  Abstract  Next   Article  PDF