This list contains the 50 most recently published research articles, including advance online publication articles that have not yet been published in a journal issue.

Showing: 1–25 of 50

  1. Constraints and consequences of the emergence of amino acid repeats in eukaryotic proteins AOP

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    Computational analyses of the yeast proteome and experimental work show that homorepeats facilitate protein-protein interactions and rapid protein divergence. To balance their propensity to aggregate, homorepeats are preferentially retained in proteins that are stringently regulated.

  2. X-ray structures of endothelin ETB receptor bound to clinical antagonist bosentan and its analog AOP

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    Crystal structures of human endothelin ETB receptor bound to bosentan and to ETB-selective derivative provide insight into the basis of antagonism by these drugs.

  3. Hydroxylation of a conserved tRNA modification establishes non-universal genetic code in echinoderm mitochondria AOP

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    In echinoderm mitochondria, the codon AAA encodes asparagine instead of lysine. A newly identified nucleoside modification, hydroxy-N6-threonylcarbamoyladenosine (ht6A), is found adjacent to the anticodon in mt-tRNALys and prevents mt-tRNALys from misreading AAA as lysine.

  4. Structural basis of TIR-domain-assembly formation in MAL- and MyD88-dependent TLR4 signaling AOP

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    Structural insight into TIR-domain interactions, which are essential for the recruitment of signaling adapters to Toll-like receptors during innate immune responses, demonstrates a conserved interaction mode involved in both TLR and IL-1R signaling.

  5. Mechanochemical evolution of the giant muscle protein titin as inferred from resurrected proteins

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    Single-molecule spectroscopy analyses of titin fragments from modern animals and reconstructed from the last common ancestors to mammals, sauropsids and tetrapods shed light on the evolution of the mechanical properties of muscle titin from the Paleozoic to our days.

  6. Asparagine endopeptidase cleaves α-synuclein and mediates pathologic activities in Parkinson's disease

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    Asparagine endopeptidase (AEP) cleaves human α-synuclein at Asn103, yielding a fragment with higher aggregation propensity than that of the full-length protein. Truncated α-synuclein is also more neurotoxic and leads to dopaminergic neuronal loss and motor impairments in mice.

  7. Regulator-dependent mechanisms of C3b processing by factor I allow differentiation of immune responses

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    The structure of C3b in complex with factor I and a shortened version of factor H, along with functional analyses, leads to a mechanistic model for how regulators determine sequential cleavage events on C3b.

  8. Chromatin-enriched lncRNAs can act as cell-type specific activators of proximal gene transcription

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    Functional characterization of chromatin enriched lncRNAs (cheRNAs) reveals their role as cis-acting transcriptional activators that couple enhancers at sites of cheRNA synthesis to promoters of proximal target genes.

    See also: News and Views by Srimonta Gayen et al.

  9. Rif1 maintains telomeres and mediates DNA repair by encasing DNA ends

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    Structure determination and functional analyses of budding yeast Rif1 reveal a novel, hooked N-terminal DNA-binding domain required for telomere maintenance and checkpoint control and show that Rif1's role in DNA-repair pathway choice is conserved in yeast and mammalian cells.

  10. Structural basis for the cooperative allosteric activation of the free fatty acid receptor GPR40

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    Crystal structures of hGPR40, a target for treatment of type 2 diabetes, bound to a partial and an allosteric agonist explain the binding cooperativity between these ligands and present new opportunities for structure-guided drug design.