Mutually exclusive splicing is a regulated means to generate protein diversity, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here comparative genome analysis revealed the built-in intronic elements for controlling mutually exclusive splicing of the 14-3-3ξ pre-mRNA. These elements are clade specific but are evolutionarily conserved at the secondary structure level. Combined evidence revealed the triple functions of these inter-intronic RNA pairings in synergistically ensuring the selection of only one of multiple exons, through activation of the proximal variable exon outside the loop by the approximation of cis elements, and simultaneous repression of the exon within the loop, in combination with the physical competition of RNA pairing. Additionally, under this model, we also deciphered a similar structural code in exon clusters 4 and 9 of Dscam (38,016 isoforms) and Mhc (480 isoforms). Our findings suggest a broadly applicable mechanism to ensure mutually exclusive splicing.
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- Supplementary Text and Figures (948K)
Supplementary Figures 1–7, Supplementary Tables 1–2 and Supplementary Results