Latest Reviews

  • Opinion |

    The extent and contribution of maternal influence to the developing hypothalamus to later feeding behaviour remain controversial. In this Opinion, Zeltser proposes that crosstalk between developing circuits regulating different modalities of food intake shapes susceptibility to environmental challenges.

    • Lori M. Zeltser
  • Review Article |

    Peripheral axon injury initiates a regenerative response that is absent in CNS axons. Mahar and Cavalli describe the mechanisms that initiate and coordinate the programme of transcriptional and epigenetic changes that enable axon regeneration in the peripheral nervous system.

    • Marcus Mahar
    •  & Valeria Cavalli
  • Review Article |

    The basal ganglia and the cerebellum were thought to communicate via the cerebral cortex. In this Review, Andreea Bostan and Peter Strick discuss findings indicating that these subcortical areas are in fact interconnected and, along with the cerebral cortex, form an integrated network.

    • Andreea C. Bostan
    •  & Peter L. Strick
  • Review Article |

    Fibrinogen enters the brain in a wide range of brain diseases that involve blood–brain barrier disruption. In this Review, Petersen et al. discuss recent evidence that fibrinogen causes damage that contributes to the pathology of a range of neurological disorders and discuss therapeutic implications.

    • Mark A. Petersen
    • , Jae Kyu Ryu
    •  & Katerina Akassoglou
  • Review Article |

    Advanced recording techniques have enabled the identification of travelling waves of neuronal activity in different areas of the cortex. Sejnowski and colleagues review these findings, consider the mechanisms by which travelling waves are generated and evaluate their possible roles in cortical function.

    • Lyle Muller
    • , Frédéric Chavane
    • , John Reynolds
    •  & Terrence J. Sejnowski
  • Review Article |

    The morphology of dendrites and dendritic spines changes with development and as a result of activity-dependent plasticity mechanisms. Penzes and colleagues describe the altered dendritic structural plasticity that is associated with some neuropsychiatric disorders and consider the underlying molecular mechanisms, based on recent genetic discoveries.

    • Marc P. Forrest
    • , Euan Parnell
    •  & Peter Penzes
  • Review Article |

    Much research has shown that lactate produced by astrocytes serves as a neuronal energy substrate. In this Review, Magistretti and Allaman describe this model as well as recent evidence that lactate also modulates neuronal properties, including excitability and plasticity, thus helping to set the 'homeostatic tone' of the nervous system.

    • Pierre J. Magistretti
    •  & Igor Allaman
  • Review Article |

    Coordination between peripheral signals that reflect feeding status and central regulatory mechanisms are crucial for regulating body weight. In this Review, Sandoval and colleagues discuss how and where peripherally derived signals are integrated within the CNS to modulate feeding behaviour.

    • Ki-Suk Kim
    • , Randy J. Seeley
    •  & Darleen A. Sandoval
  • Review Article |

    How are synapses optimally strengthened or weakened to improve network performance? Roelfsema and Holtmaat provide an overview of factors that influence synaptic plasticity, particularly in deep, multilayered biological networks, and present a specific framework in which neuromodulators and feedback connections may interact to selectively potentiate synapses responsible for rewarded action.

    • Pieter R. Roelfsema
    •  & Anthony Holtmaat
  • Review Article |

    The human brain undergoes rapid development during the first 2 years of life. Here, Gilmore and colleagues give an overview of recent neuroimaging studies of the developmental trajectories of brain structure and function in the first years after birth.

    • John H. Gilmore
    • , Rebecca C. Knickmeyer
    •  & Wei Gao
  • Review Article |

    The brain regulates adipose tissue metabolism through sympathetic efferent pathways; in turn, adipose tissues relay energy-status information to the brain. This Review gives an overview of interactions between the brain and adipose tissues, with a particular focus on leptin as a regulator of these communications.

    • Alexandre Caron
    • , Syann Lee
    • , Joel K. Elmquist
    •  & Laurent Gautron
  • Review Article |

    The prevalence of adolescent alcohol use in some countries is high and is associated with various changes in brain function and behaviour. In this Review, Linda Spear examines the contributors to and consequences of alcohol use during adolescence, covering findings in humans and rodent models of this developmental period.

    • Linda P. Spear
  • Review Article |

    Mitochondria may be actively recruited to presynapses to supply energy, buffer calcium and, potentially, fulfil other functions. In this Review, Devine and Kittler examine the importance of this presynaptic population of mitochondria in the maintenance of neuronal homeostasis and how dysfunctional presynaptic mitochondria might contribute to neurodegenerative diseases.

    • Michael J. Devine
    •  & Josef T. Kittler
  • Review Article |

    Eating patterns in modern societies often preclude the metabolic switch from utilization of glucose to ketones as a cellular energy source. In this Review, Mattson and colleagues discuss how intermittent metabolic switching impacts brain function and vulnerability to injury and disease.

    • Mark P. Mattson
    • , Keelin Moehl
    • , Nathaniel Ghena
    • , Maggie Schmaedick
    •  & Aiwu Cheng
  • Review Article |

    Although leptin administration decreases food intake and body weight in lean mice, it has no effect in obese mice. In this Review, Pan and Myers discuss how leptin action becomes dysfunctional in obesity and suggest that elevated leptin levels promote processes that limit leptin action.

    • Warren W. Pan
    •  & Martin G. Myers Jr
  • Opinion |

    During low-vigilance states, thalamic neurons exhibit diverse rhythmic activities that contribute to specific parts of the electroencephalogram rhythm. In this perspective, Crunelli and colleagues propose that thalamic oscillations of these low-vigilance states also have a plasticity function that modifies the strength of excitatory and inhibitory synapses in local neuronal assemblies.

    • Vincenzo Crunelli
    • , Magor L. Lőrincz
    • , William M. Connelly
    • , François David
    • , Stuart W. Hughes
    • , Régis C. Lambert
    • , Nathalie Leresche
    •  & Adam C. Errington
  • Review Article |

    The brain comprises complex structural and functional networks, but much remains to be determined regarding how these networks support the communication processes that underlie neuronal computation. In this Review, Avena-Koenigsberger, Misic and Sporns discuss the network basis of communication dynamics in the brain.

    • Andrea Avena-Koenigsberger
    • , Bratislav Misic
    •  & Olaf Sporns
  • Review Article |

    The brain uses predictable temporal structure to anticipate and select relevant events in time. Nobre and van Ede introduce different types of this 'temporal expectation' and its neural underpinnings, and describe how temporal expectation interacts with other forms of expectation in guiding adaptive behaviour.

    • Anna C. Nobre
    •  & Freek van Ede
  • Progress |

    Activity-driven changes in gene transcription regulate synaptic development and function. Bading and colleagues describe recent evidence of lineage-specific changes in the gene regulatory regions that govern excitation–transcription coupling and consider how such changes may have contributed to the evolution of human cognitive abilities.

    • Giles E. Hardingham
    • , Priit Pruunsild
    • , Michael E. Greenberg
    •  & Hilmar Bading
  • Review Article |

    Promoting remyelination may be an effective therapeutic strategy for various disorders that are characterized by a loss of myelin, including multiple sclerosis. In this Review, Franklin and ffrench-Constant discuss recent developments in our understanding of remyelination and the efforts that are underway to enhance this process.

    • Robin J. M. Franklin
    •  & Charles ffrench-Constant