Table of contents


Comment: Incorporating sex as a biological variable in neuroscience: what do we gain?

Margaret M. McCarthy, Catherine S. Woolley & Arthur P. Arnold

p707 | doi:10.1038/nrn.2017.137

In recent years, several funding agencies have introduced requirements for researchers to consider sex as a biological variable in preclinical research. In this Comment article, McCarthy and colleagues discuss the potential impact of these policies for neuroscience research.

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Research Highlights

Neural coding: Flexible in the face of distraction | PDF (102 KB)

p709 | doi:10.1038/nrn.2017.142

In a working memory task, the neural code for the target stimulus in the lateral prefrontal cortex transforms when a distractor is presented, without loss of target-related information.

Epigenetics: Leaving a lasting mark | PDF (168 KB)

p710 | doi:10.1038/nrn.2017.144

Methylation of neuronal genes at CA sequences is modulated by neuronal activity during early postnatal periods and fine tunes gene expression in adult neurons.

Neural circuits: Shock signals | PDF (216 KB)

p710 | doi:10.1038/nrn.2017.145

In fear conditioning in mice, neurons in the lateral central amygdala that express protein kinase Cδ convey the unconditioned stimulus to the lateral amygdala to enable the encoding of aversive memory.

Learning and memory: Holding the space | PDF (185 KB)

p711 | doi:10.1038/nrn.2017.143

Spatial position is spontaneously stored as part of working memory, even in tasks where spatial location is not relevant to the task.

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Reviews

The nano-architecture of the axonal cytoskeleton

Christophe Leterrier, Pankaj Dubey & Subhojit Roy

p713 | doi:10.1038/nrn.2017.129

An axon's function is dictated by its morphology and, thus, by the properties and organization of the axonal cytoskeleton. Leterrier et al. describe how advances in super-resolution and live-cell imaging are transforming our understanding of the molecular architecture of the axonal shaft.

Genetic insights into the neurodevelopmental origins of schizophrenia

Rebecca Birnbaum & Daniel R. Weinberger

p727 | doi:10.1038/nrn.2017.125

A causal explanation for the pathogenesis of schizophrenia is lacking. In this Review, Birnbaum and Weinberger explore recent genetic studies of schizophrenia and discuss how genetic and epigenetic risk of the disorder may converge to perturb key neurodevelopmental trajectories.

The dopamine motive system: implications for drug and food addiction

Nora D. Volkow, Roy A. Wise & Ruben Baler

p741 | doi:10.1038/nrn.2017.130

The dopamine motive system, which integrates reinforcement and motivation, is influenced by obesogenic foods and addictive drugs. In this Review, Volkow and colleagues highlight how these stimuli sensitize the subject's motivation towards them while desensitizing the subject's motivation towards alternative reinforcers.

Regenerating CNS myelin — from mechanisms to experimental medicines

Robin J. M. Franklin & Charles ffrench-Constant

p753 | doi:10.1038/nrn.2017.136

Promoting remyelination may be an effective therapeutic strategy for various disorders that are characterized by a loss of myelin, including multiple sclerosis. In this Review, Franklin and ffrench-Constant discuss recent developments in our understanding of remyelination and the efforts that are underway to enhance this process.

Correspondence

Correspondence: Some considerations on de Waal and Preston review

Giacomo Rizzolatti & Fausto Caruana

p769 | doi:10.1038/nrn.2017.139

Reply: Only the PAM explains the personalized nature of empathy

Stephanie D. Preston & Frans B. M. de Waal

p769 | doi:10.1038/nrn.2017.140