Research over the past two decades broadly supports the claim that mindfulness meditation — practiced widely for the reduction of stress and promotion of health — exerts beneficial effects on physical and mental health, and cognitive performance. Recent neuroimaging studies have begun to uncover the brain areas and networks that mediate these positive effects. However, the underlying neural mechanisms remain unclear, and it is apparent that more methodologically rigorous studies are required if we are to gain a full understanding of the neuronal and molecular bases of the changes in the brain that accompany mindfulness meditation.
- Meditation practices for health: state of the research. Evid. Rep. Technol. Assess. (Full Rep.) 155, 1–263 (2007). et al.
- Theory and method in mindfulness neuroscience. Soc. Cogn. Affect. Neurosci. 8, 118–120 (2013). &
- 1987). The Art of Living: Vipassana Meditation (Harper and Row,
- The psychological and neurophysiological concomitants of mindfulness forms of meditation. Acta Neuropsychiatr. 19, 76–91 (2007). &
- Mindfulness-based approaches: are they all the same? J. Clin. Psychol. 67, 404–424 (2011). &
- Mindfulness training as a clinical intervention: a conceptual and empirical review. Clin. Psychol. Sci. Practice 10, 125–143 (2003).
- Defining mindfulness by how poorly I think I pay attention during everyday awareness and other intractable problems for psychology's (re)invention of mindfulness: comment on Brown et al. Psychol. Assess. 23, 1034–1040 (2011).
- 1990). Full Catastrophe Living: Using the Wisdom of Your Body and Mind to Face Stress, Pain, and Illness (Delta Trade Paperbacks,
- Attention regulation and monitoring in meditation. Trends Cogn. Sci. 12, 163–169 (2008). , , &
- How does mindfulness meditation work? Proposing mechanisms of action from a conceptual and neural perspective. Perspect. Psychol. Sci. 6, 537–559 (2011).
A review of the mechanisms of meditation.
- Neural correlates of establishing, maintaining and switching brain states. Trends Cogn. Sci. 16, 330–337 (2012).
A review of the mechanisms of brain states associated with mental training.
- Mindfulness meditation improves cognition: evidence of brief mental training. Conscious. Cogn. 19, 597–605 (2010). , , , &
- Short-term meditation modulates brain activity of insight evoked with solution cue. Soc. Cogn. Affect. Neurosci. 10, 43–49 (2014). et al.
- Short-term meditation training improves attention and self-regulation. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 104, 17152–17156 (2007).
The first longitudinal, randomized study to document that brief training improves executive attention, mood and immune function, and reduces levels of stress hormones.
- Neural correlates of focused attention and cognitive monitoring in meditation. Brain Res. Bull. 82, 46–56 (2010). et al.
- Meditation-related activations are modulated by the practices needed to obtain it and by the expertise: an ALE meta-analysis study. Front. Hum. Neurosci. 6, 346 (2012). , , &
- Is meditation associated with altered brain structure? A systematic review and meta-analysis of morphometric neuroimaging in meditation practitioners. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 43, 48–73 (2014).
A review of structural alterations in the brain associated with meditation.
- Neural correlates of attentional expertise in long-term meditation practitioners. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 104, 11483–11488 (2007).
One of the first cross-sectional studies to document the neural correlates of focused meditation.
, , , &
- Empirical explorations of mindfulness: conceptual and methodological conundrums. Emotion 10, 8–11 (2010).
- The validation of an active control intervention for Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR). Behav. Res. Ther. 50, 3–12 (2012).
One of the first studies to validate the active control conditions in mindfulness training.
- A comparison of mindfulness-based stress reduction and an active control in modulation of neurogenic inflammation. Brain Behav. Immun. 27, 174–184 (2013). et al.
- No sustained attention differences in a longitudinal randomized trial comparing mindfulness based stress reduction versus active control. PLoS ONE 9, e97551 (2014). , , , &
- Central and autonomic nervous system interaction is altered by short-term meditation. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 106, 8865–8870 (2009). et al.
- The effects of experimentally induced mindfulness on emotional responding to film clips. Emotion 10, 72–82 (2010). &
- Short-term compassion training increases prosocial behaviour in a newly developed prosocial game. PLoS ONE 6, e17798 (2011). , &
- Randomized controlled trial of mindfulness meditation for generalized anxiety disorder: effects on anxiety and stress reactivity. J. Clin. Psychiatry 74, 786–792 (2013). et al.
- Improving executive function and its neurobiological mechanisms through a mindfulness-based intervention: advances within the field of developmental neuroscience. Child Dev. Perspect. 6, 361–366 (2012). , , &
- Effects of brief and sham mindfulness meditation on mood and cardiovascular variables. J. Altern. Complement. Med. 16, 867–873 (2010). , , &
- MBSR versus aerobic exercise in social anxiety: fMRI of emotion regulation of negative self-beliefs. Soc. Cogn. Affect. Neurosci. 8, 65–72 (2013).
One of the first randomized mindfulness studies to document the neural mechanisms in social anxiety.
, , , &
- Brain mechanisms supporting the modulation of pain by mindfulness meditation. J. Neurosci. 31, 5540–5548 (2011). et al.
- Investigation of mindfulness meditation practitioners with voxel-based morphometry. Soc. Cogn. Affect. Neurosci. 3, 55–61 (2008). et al.
- Meditation experience is associated with increased cortical thickness. Neuroreport 16, 1893–1897 (2005).
The first cross-sectional study to document that meditation is associated with structural changes in the brain.
- Long-term meditation is associated with increased grey matter density in the brain stem. Neuroreport 20, 170–174 (2009). et al.
- Age effects on grey matter volume and attentional performance in Zen meditation. Neurobiol. Aging 28, 1623–1627 (2007). &
- A non-elaborative mental stance and decoupling of executive and pain-related cortices predicts low pain sensitivity in Zen meditators. Pain 152, 150–156 (2010). , &
- Cortical thickness, mental absorption and meditative practice: possible implications for disorders of attention. Biol. Psychol. 92, 275–281 (2013). et al.
- Brain changes in long-term zen meditators using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and diffusion tensor imaging: a controlled study. PLoS ONE 8, e58476 (2013). et al.
- Short-term meditation induces white matter changes in the anterior cingulate. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 107, 15649–15652 (2010).
The first longitudinal study to document that brief mindfulness training induces white-matter changes.
- Mechanisms of white matter changes induced by meditation. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 109, 10570–10574 (2012). , , , &
- Mindfulness practice leads to increases in regional brain grey matter density. Psychiatry Res. 191, 36–43 (2011). et al.
- Meditation's impact on default mode network and hippocampus in mild cognitive impairment: a pilot study. Neurosci. Lett. 556, 15–19 (2013). et al.
- Mindfulness based intervention in Parkinson's disease leads to structural brain changes on MRI: a randomized controlled longitudinal trial. Clin. Neurol. Neurosurg. 115, 2419–2425 (2013). et al.
- The underlying anatomical correlates of long-term meditation: larger hippocampal and frontal volumes of grey matter. Neuroimage 45, 672–678 (2009). , , &
- Enhanced brain connectivity in long-term meditation practitioners. Neuroimage 57, 1308–1316 (2011). , , &
- Bridging the hemispheres in meditation: thicker callosal regions and enhanced fractional anisotropy (FA) in long-term practitioners. Neuroimage 61, 181–187 (2012). et al.
- Global and regional alterations of hippocampal anatomy in long-term meditation practitioners. Hum. Brain Mapp. 34, 3369–3375 (2013). et al.
- Change in brainstem grey matter concentration following a mindfulness-based intervention is correlated with improvement in psychological well-being. Front. Hum. Neurosci. 8, 33 (2014). et al.
- Stress reduction correlates with structural changes in the amygdala. Soc. Cogn. Affect. Neurosci. 5, 11–17 (2010). et al.
- Meditation effects within the hippocampal complex revealed by voxel-based morphometry and cytoarchitectonic probabilistic mapping. Front. Psychol. 4, 398 (2013). , , , &
- The unique brain anatomy of meditation practitioners: alterations in cortical gyrification. Front. Hum. Neurosci. 6, 34 (2012). et al.
- Cortical thickness and pain sensitivity in zen meditators. Emotion 10, 43–53 (2010). , , , &
- Mindfulness meditation training alters cortical representations of interoceptive attention. Soc. Cogn. Affect. Neurosci. 8, 15–26 (2013). , &
- Attention training and attention state training. Trends Cogn. Sci. 13, 222–227 (2009). &
- Ch. 5 (eds Brown, K. W., Creswell, J. D. & Ryan, R. M.) 81–89 (Guildford Press, 2014). & in Handbook of Mindfulness: Theory, Research, and Practice
- The attention system of the human brain. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 13, 25–42 (1990). &
- The attention system of the human brain: 20 years after. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 35, 73–89 (2012). &
- Testing the efficiency and independence of attentional networks. J. Cogn. Neurosci. 14, 340–347 (2002). , , , &
- Typologies of attentional networks. Nature Rev. Neurosci. 7, 367–379 (2006). &
- Research on attention networks as a model for the integration of psychological science. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 58, 1–23 (2007). &
- Does mindfulness training improve cognitive abilities? A systematic review of neuropsychological findings. Clin. Psychol. Rev. 31, 449–464 (2011). , &
- Effects of level of meditation experience on attentional focus: is the efficiency of executive or orientation networks improved? J. Altern. Complement. Med. 13, 651–657 (2007). &
- Meditation, mindfulness and cognitive flexibility. Conscious. Cogn. 18, 176–186 (2009). &
- Meditation can reduce habitual responding. Altern. Ther. Health Med. 11, 42–58 (2005).
- Mental training affects distribution of limited brain resources. PLoS Biol. 5, e138 (2007). et al.
- Overlapping mental operations in serial performance with preview. Q. J. Exp. Psychol. A. 47, 161–191 (discussion 193–199, 201–205) (1994).
- Measuring alertness. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 1129, 193–199 (2008).
- Age effects on attentional blink performance in meditation. Conscious. Cogn. 18, 593–599 (2009). , &
- Greater efficiency in attentional processing related to mindfulness meditation. Q. J. Exp. Psychol. (Hove) 63, 1168–1180 (2010). , , , &
- Mindfulness-based stress reduction and attentional control. Clin. Psychol. Psychother. 14, 449–463 (2007). , , &
- Mindfulness training modifies subsystems of attention. Cogn. Affect. Behav. Neurosci. 7, 109–119 (2007). , &
- Intensive meditation training improves perceptual discrimination and sustained attention. Psychol Sci, 21, 829–839 (2010). et al.
- Age effects on grey matter volume and attentional performance in Zen meditation. Neurobiol. Aging 28, 1623–1627 (2007). &
- Training brain networks and states. Trends Cogn. Sci. 18, 345–350 (2014). &
- Brief meditation training induces smoking reduction. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 110, 13971–13975 (2013). , &
- Meditation states and traits: EEG, ERP, and neuroimaging studies. Psychol. Bull. 132, 180–211 (2006). &
- Differential engagement of anterior cingulate and adjacent medial frontal cortex in adept meditators and non-meditators. Neurosci. Lett. 421, 16–21 (2007). et al.
- The anterior cingulate as a conflict monitor: fMRI and ERP studies. Physiol. Behav. 77, 477–482 (2002). &
- The anterior cingulate gyrus and the mechanism of self-regulation. Cogn. Affect. Behav. Neurosci. 7, 391–395 (2007). , , &
- Ventral-subgenual anterior cingulate cortex and self-transcendence. Front. Psychol. 4, 1000 (2014). &
- A critical role for the right fronto-insular cortex in switching between central-executive and default-mode networks. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 105, 12569–12574 (2008). , &
- Pain attenuation through mindfulness is associated with decreased cognitive control and increased sensory processing in the brain. Cereb. Cortex 22, 2692–2702 (2012). et al.
- Cognitive-affective neural plasticity following active-controlled mindfulness intervention. J. Neurosci. 32, 15601–15610 (2012).
One of the first studies to document the effects of mindfulness using active controls.
- Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) on emotion regulation in social anxiety disorder. Emotion 10, 83–91 (2010). &
- 2014). , , , & Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Bipolar Disorder (Guildford Press,
- Emotion processing influences working memory circuits in pediatric bipolar disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 49, 1064–1080 (2010). , &
- 2nd edn (ed. Gross, J. J.) 3–20 (Guildford Press, 2014). in Handbook of Emotion Regulation
- Mindfulness meditation and reduced emotional interference on a cognitive task. Motiv. Emot. 31, 271–283 (2007). , &
- Meditation as an intervention in stress reactivity. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 44, 456–466 (1976). &
- Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on emotional experience and expression: a randomized controlled trial. J. Clin. Psychol. 68, 117–131 (2012). , , &
- The impact of intensive mindfulness training on attentional control, cognitive style, and affect. Cogn. Ther. Res. 32, 303–322 (2008). , &
- Improving creativity performance by short-term meditation. Behav. Brain Funct. 10, 9 (2014). , , &
- A randomized controlled trial of mindfulness meditation versus relaxation training: effects on distress, positive states of mind, rumination, and distraction. Ann. Behav. Med. 33, 11–21 (2007). et al.
- Effects of mindful-attention and compassion meditation training on amygdala response to emotional stimuli in an ordinary, non-meditative state. Front. Hum. Neurosci. 6, 292 (2012). et al.
- Mindfulness and emotion regulation — an fMRI study. Soc. Cogn. Affect. Neurosci. 9, 776–785 (2014). et al.
- Impact of mindfulness on the neural responses to emotional pictures in experienced and beginner meditators. Neuroimage 57, 1524–1533 (2011). et al.
- Mindful attention reduces neural and self-reported cue-induced craving in smokers. Soc. Cogn. Affect. Neurosci. 8, 73–84 (2013). et al.
- Neural mechanisms of symptom improvements in generalized anxiety disorder following mindfulness training. Neuroimage Clin. 2, 448–458 (2013).
One of the first longitudinal, randomized mindfulness studies to document the neural mechanisms in generalized anxiety disorder.
- Attending to the present: mindfulness meditation reveals distinct neural modes of self-reference. Soc. Cogn. Affect. Neurosci. 2, 313–322 (2007). et al.
- Inside the mindful mind: how mindfulness enhances emotion regulation through improvements in executive control. Curr. Dir. Psychol. 22, 449–454 (2013). , &
- Mindfulness: top-down or bottom-up emotion regulation strategy? Clin. Psychol. Rev. 33, 82–96 (2013). , &
- Neural mechanisms of attentional control in mindfulness meditation. Front. Hum. Neurosci. 7, 8 (2013).
- Mindfulness training affects attention — or is it attentional effort? J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 141, 106–123 (2012). et al.
- 410–424 (MIT Press, 2010). , , & in Effortless Attention: A New Perspective in the Cognitive Science of Attention and Action (ed. Bruya, B.)
- Amygdala-frontal connectivity during emotion-regulation. Soc. Cogn. Affect Neurosci. 2, 303–312 (2007). , , , &
- Resolving emotional conflict: a role for the rostral anterior cingulate cortex in modulating activity in the amygdala. Neuron 51, 871–882 (2006). , , , &
- Adaptive neural reward processing during anticipation and receipt of monetary rewards in mindfulness meditators. Soc. Cogn. Affect. Neurosci. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/scan/nsu112 (2014). , &
- 2010). Unlimiting Mind: The Radically Experiential Psychology of Buddhism (Wisdom Publications,
- A neurocognitive model of meditation based on activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis. Conscious. Cogn. 21, 269–276 (2012). , &
- Initial psychometric properties of the experiences questionnaire: validation of a self-report measure of decentering. Behav. Ther. 38, 234–246 (2007). et al.
- Mechanisms of mindfulness. J. Clin. Psychol. 62, 373–386 (2006). , , &
- Neural correlates of nondual awareness in meditation. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 1307, 9–18 (2014).
- Developing an observing attitude: an analysis of meditation diaries in an MBSR clinical trial. Clin. Psychol. Psychother. 18, 80–93 (2011). , &
- Mindfulness-induced selflessness: a MEG neurophenomenological study. Front. Hum. Neurosci. 7, 582 (2013). , , &
- Changes in self-concept, ego defense mechanisms, and religiosity following seven-day Vipassana meditation retreats. J. Sci. Stud. Relig. 36, 194–206 (1997). &
- The effect of contemplative practice on intrapersonal, interpersonal, and transpersonal dimensions of the self-concept. J. Transpers. Psychol. 33, 37–52 (2001). &
- A scale to measure nonattachment: a Buddhist complement to Western research on attachment and adaptive functioning. J. Pers. Assess. 92, 116–127 (2010). , &
- Meditation experience is associated with differences in default mode network activity and connectivity. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 108, 20254–20259 (2011).
One of the first studies to document the alteration of the DMN by meditation.
- Effects of meditation experience on functional connectivity of distributed brain networks. Front. Hum. Neurosci. 6, 38 (2012). &
- The brain's default network: anatomy, function, and relevance to disease. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 1124, 1–38 (2008). , &
- A default mode of brain function. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 98, 676–682 (2001). et al.
- Self-referential processing in our brain: a meta-analysis of imaging studies on the self. Neuroimage 31, 440–457 (2006). et al.
- Delineating self-referential processing from episodic memory retrieval: common and dissociable networks. Neuroimage 50, 1606–1617 (2010). et al.
- Self-projection and the brain. Trends Cogn. Sci. 11, 49–57 (2007). &
- Interoceptive awareness in experienced meditators. Psychophysiology 45, 671–677 (2008). et al.
- Awareness of subtle emotional feelings: a comparison of long-term meditators and nonmeditators. Emotion 6, 392–405 (2006). &
- Coherence between emotional experience and physiology: does body awareness training have an impact? Emotion 10, 803–814 (2010). , , &
- Meditation experience predicts introspective accuracy. PLoS ONE 7, e45370 (2012). et al.
- Regulation of the neural circuitry of emotion by compassion meditation: effects of meditative expertise. PLoS ONE 3, e1897 (2008). , , &
- How do you feel — now? The anterior insula and human awareness. Nature Rev. Neurosci. 10, 59–70 (2009).
- Changes in cerebral blood flow and anxiety associated with an 8-week mindfulness programme in women with breast cancer. Stress Health 28, 397–407 (2012). et al.
- Dynamic plasticity: the role of glucocorticoids, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and other trophic factors. Neuroscience 239, 214–227 (2013). , &
- Brief mindfulness meditation training alters psychological and neuroendocrine responses to social evaluative stress. Psychoneuroendocrinology 44, 1–12 (2014). , , &
- Short-term meditation intervention improves self-regulation and academic performance. J. Child Adolesc. Behav. 2, 4 (2014). , , &
- Mindfulness-based stress reduction for stress management in healthy people: a review and meta-analysis. J. Altern. Complement. Med. 15, 593–600 (2009). ,
- Self-reported mindfulness and cortisol during a Shamatha meditation retreat. Health Psychol. 32, 1104–1109 (2013). et al.
- Cortisol level modulated by integrative meditation in a dose-dependent fashion. Stress Health 30, 65–70 (2013). , &
- Mucosal immunity modulated by integrative meditation in a dose-dependent fashion. J. Altern. Complement. Med. 16, 151–155 (2010). , , &
- The effect of meditation on brain structure: cortical thickness mapping and diffusion tensor imaging. Soc. Cogn. Affect. Neurosci. 8, 27–33 (2013). et al.
- Large-scale brain networks in cognition: emerging methods and principles. Trends Cogn. Sci. 14, 277–290 (2010). &
- Large-scale brain networks and psychopathology: a unifying triple network model. Trends Cogn. Sci. 15, 483–506 (2011).
- Short-term meditation increases network efficiency of the anterior cingulate cortex. Neuroreport 22, 570–574 (2011). , &
- Fluid intelligence and brain functional organization in aging yoga and meditation practitioners. Front. Aging Neurosci. 6, 76 (2014). et al.
- The new field of brain-body medicine: what have we learned and where are we headed? Neuroimage 47, 1135–1140 (2009). &
- Real-time fMRI links subjective experience with brain activity during focused attention. Neuroimage 81, 110–118 (2013). et al.
- Decoding fMRI brain states in real-time. Neuroimage 56, 440–454 (2011).
- Self-regulation of amygdala activation using real-time fMRI neurofeedback. PLoS ONE 6, e24522 (2011). et al.
- Decoding mental states from brain activity in humans. Nature Rev. Neurosci. 7, 523–534 (2006). &
- Gene-by-environment experiments: a new approach to finding the missing heritability. Nature Rev. Genet. 12, 881 (2011). et al.
- Influence of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and catechol O-methyl transferase polymorphisms on effects of meditation on plasma catecholamines and stress. Stress 15, 97–104 (2012). et al.
- Mood and personality predict improvement in creativity due to meditation training. Learn. Individ. Differ. 37, 217–221 (2014). , , , &
- 2011). Becoming Who We Are (Guilford Press,
- Changes in EEG and autonomic nervous activity during meditation and their association with personality traits. Int. J. Psychophysiol. 55, 199–207 (2005). et al.
- A gradient of childhood self-control predicts health, wealth, and public safety. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 108, 2693–2698 (2011). et al.
- The effect of mindfulness-based therapy on anxiety and depression: a meta-analytic review. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 78, 169–183 (2010).
A review of the effect of mindfulness-based therapy on anxiety and mood symptoms.
, , &
- Relative efficacy of mindfulness-based relapse prevention, standard relapse prevention, and treatment as usual for substance use disorders: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Psychiatry 71, 547–556 (2014).
One of the first longitudinal studies to document the effects of mindfulness on drug use and heavy drinking.
- Effects of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy on neurophysiological correlates of performance monitoring in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Clin. Neurophysiol. 125, 1407–1416 (2014). et al.
- Neural correlates of mindfulness meditation-related anxiety relief. Soc. Cogn. Affect. Neurosci. 9, 751–759 (2014). , , , &
- Moving beyond mindfulness: defining equanimity as an outcome measure in meditation and contemplative research. Mindfulness http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12671-013-0269-8 (2014). et al.
- Alterations in brain and immune function produced by mindfulness meditation: three caveats. Psychosom. Med. 66, 148–152 (2004).
- Psychosom. Med. 66, 148–152 (2004). ,
- Focused attention, open monitoring and loving kindness meditation: effects on attention, conflict monitoring, and creativity — a review. Front. Psychol. 5, 1083 (2014). , &
- Mind wandering and attention during focused meditation: a fine-grained temporal analysis of fluctuating cognitive states. Neuroimage 59, 750–760 (2012).
One of the first studies to document brain activity during different phases of focused-attention meditation.
, , &
- Dynamical properties of BOLD activity from the ventral posteromedial cortex associated with meditation and attentional skills. J. Neurosci. 32, 5242–5249 (2012).
- 227–247 (John Wiley, 1997). in Phobias: A Handbook of Theory, Research, and Treatment (ed. Davey, G. C. L.)
- Fear extinction as a model for translational neuroscience: ten years of progress. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 63, 129–151 (2012). &
- Recall of fear extinction in humans activates the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in concert. Biol. Psychiatry. 62, 446–454 (2007). et al.
- Emotion circuits in the brain. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 23, 155–184 (2000).
- Emotion, plasticity, context, and regulation: perspectives from affective neuroscience. Psychol. Bull. 126, 890–909 (2000). , &
- Extinction learning in humans: role of the amygdala and vmPFC. Neuron 43, 897–905 (2004). , , &
- Extinction memory is impaired in schizophrenia. Biol. Psychiatry 65, 455–463 (2009). et al.
- Presence and acquired origin of reduced recall for fear extinction in PTSD: results of a twin study. J. Psychiatr. Res. 42, 515–520 (2008). et al.
- The brain on stress: vulnerability and plasticity of the prefrontal cortex over the life course. Neuron 79, 16–29 (2013). &
- Stress- and allostasis-induced brain plasticity. Annu. Rev. Med. 62, 431–445 (2011). &
- Psychossocial stress sreversibly disrupts prefrontal processing and attentional control. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 106, 912–917 (2009). , &
- Social influences on neuroplasticity: stress and interventions to promote well-being. Nature Neurosci. 15, 689–695 (2012). &
- The brain on stress: toward an integrative approach to brain, body and behaviour. Perspect. Psychol. Sci. 8, 673–675 (2013).
- A model of neurovisceral integration in emotion regulation and dysregulation. J. Affective Disord. 61, 201–216 (2000). &
- Ch. 23 (eds Brown, K. W., Creswell, J. D. & Ryan, R. M.) (Guildford Press, 2014). in Handbook of Mindfulness: Theory, Research, and Practice
- Short-term autonomic and cardiovascular effects of mindfulness body scan meditation. Ann. Behav. Med. 32, 227–234 (2006). , &
- Does meditation enhance cognition and brain plasticity? Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 1172, 63–69 (2009). &