Table of contents


Research Highlights

Neurodegeneration: Ageing neurons need REST | PDF (2,561 KB)

p279 | doi:10.1038/nrn3728

The transcription factor REST has a neuroprotective role in the healthy ageing brain that is disrupted in Alzheimer's disease.

In the news

A blood test for Alzheimer's disease? | PDF (620 KB)

p280 | doi:10.1038/nrn3726

A recent study has identified a potential blood-based biomarker for Alzheimer's disease.

Neurodevelopment: Pruning: a class I act | PDF (738 KB)

p280 | doi:10.1038/nrn3732

Neuronally expressed major histocompatibility complex class I molecule H2-Db regulates structural and functional plasticity at retinogeniculate synapses.

Synaptic plasticity: Microglial cell-mediated depression | PDF (688 KB)

p280 | doi:10.1038/nrn3733

Activation of microglial complement receptor 3 by an inflammatory stimulus in the presence of hypoxia induces long-term depression of synaptic transmission in the hippocampus.

Learning and memory: Out of body, out of mind | PDF (650 KB)

p282 | doi:10.1038/nrn3727

An event that is experienced from an 'out-of-body' perspective is remembered less well and its recall does not induce the usual pattern of hippocampal activation.

Gap junctions: Inputs alter coupling strength | PDF (647 KB)

p282 | doi:10.1038/nrn3741

Both GABAergic and glutamatergic projections can modulate the strength of electrical coupling between inferior olive neurons and alter neuron synchronization in the cerebellar inferior olive.

In brief

Sensory processing: 'Seeing' bodies via sounds | PDF (562 KB)

p281 | doi:10.1038/nrn3734

Learning and memory: The hippocampus encodes objects in time | PDF (562 KB)

p281 | doi:10.1038/nrn3735

Olfaction: The nose knows one trillion smells | PDF (562 KB)

p281 | doi:10.1038/nrn3736

Neurophysiology: Pericytes set the tone | PDF (559 KB)

p283 | doi:10.1038/nrn3737

Neuroimaging: Functional networks are short-lived | PDF (559 KB)

p283 | doi:10.1038/nrn3738

Transporters: Channelling seizure susceptibility | PDF (559 KB)

p283 | doi:10.1038/nrn3739

Sensory processing: Shifting states | PDF (559 KB)

p283 | doi:10.1038/nrn3740

Top

Reviews

Nuclear and cytosolic JNK signalling in neurons

Eleanor T. Coffey

p285 | doi:10.1038/nrn3729

JUN amino-terminal kinases (JNKs) regulate various processes in neurodevelopment and the adult brain. In this Review, Coffey examines the neuronal functions of JNKs and the therapeutic potential of targeting these kinases in various diseases of the nervous system.

Microglia and brain macrophages in the molecular age: from origin to neuropsychiatric disease

Marco Prinz & Josef Priller

p300 | doi:10.1038/nrn3722

Microglia and macrophages have crucial roles in nervous system development, maintenance and disease. In this Review, Prinz and Priller describe recently discovered details of the embryonic origins and functions of microglia that distinguish them from the other macrophage populations that reside in the brain.

Restoring sensorimotor function through intracortical interfaces: progress and looming challenges

Sliman J. Bensmaia & Lee E. Miller

p313 | doi:10.1038/nrn3724

Intracortical brain–machine interfaces with sensorimotor cortices are one approach by which a person can exert voluntary control over a prosthetic limb or paralysed muscles. In this Review, Bensmaia and Miller review recent achievements and remaining challenges in the development of intracortical brain–machine interfaces.

Top

Perspectives

Opinion

Astrocyte Ca2+ signalling: an unexpected complexity

Andrea Volterra, Nicolas Liaudet & Iaroslav Savtchouk

p327 | doi:10.1038/nrn3725

The role of astrocytic Ca2+ signalling in synaptic function remains elusive. In this Opinion article, Volterra and colleagues discuss how recent data reveal an unexpected complexity of Ca2+ dynamics in astrocytes, which both challenges current thinking and suggests a new conceptual and experimental framework to address astrocyte function.

Opinion

How does the bilingual experience sculpt the brain?

Albert Costa & Núria Sebastián-Gallés

p336 | doi:10.1038/nrn3709

Bilingualism has attracted attention for its reported effects on linguistic and cognitive abilities. In this Opinion article, Costa and Sebastián-Gallés provide their view on how learning and speaking two languages affects language acquisition and processing as well as executive control processes.