FIGURE 1 | Magnaporthe oryzae causes rice blast disease.

From the following article:

Under pressure: investigating the biology of plant infection by Magnaporthe oryzae

Richard A. Wilson & Nicholas J. Talbot

Nature Reviews Microbiology 7, 185-195 (March 2009)


Under pressure: investigating the biology of plant infection by Magnaporthe oryzae

a | Rice blast affects seedlings, causing a leaf spot disease characterized by large, spreading lesions with a necrotic centre and a chlorotic margin. Under laboratory conditions, disease lesions appear 72–96 hours after inoculation of seedlings with a suspension of conidia. b | In the field, neck and panicle blast are the major causes of rice yield losses. The fungus sporulates profusely at nodes on the rice stem and rots the neck of the mature rice plant, either causing the panicle to be lost or preventing grain filling and maturation. c | Large rice blast lesions, which can be more than 1 cm in length, on a mature rice plant. M. oryzae sporulates from lesions, and spores are dispersed by dewdrop splash. Images a–c are from a rice blast outbreak in Hunan Province, China, in October 2007. d | Scanning electron micrograph of M. oryzae conidia, which initiate infection. The teardrop-shaped conidia produce an adhesive from an apical compartment that is released when the spores are wetted and attaches them to the hydrophobic leaf surface. e | Scanning electron micrograph of a dome-shaped appressorium on the rice leaf surface. The single-celled appressorium generates enormous turgor of up to 8 MPa to rupture the rice leaf cuticle. The scale bar in d represents 10 mum, whereas the scale bar in e represents 5 mum.

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