FIGURE 2 | Wolbachia-induced phenotypes.

From the following article:

Wolbachia: master manipulators of invertebrate biology

John H. Werren, Laura Baldo & Michael E. Clark

Nature Reviews Microbiology 6, 741-751 (October 2008)


Wolbachia: master manipulators of invertebrate biology

Wolbachia cause four distinct reproductive phenotypes in a range of arthropod orders (top). Feminization results in genetic males that develop as females (in the Hemiptera, Isopoda and Lepidoptera orders). Parthenogenesis induction eliminates males from reproduction (in the Acari, Hymenoptera and Thysanoptera orders). Male killing eliminates infected males to the advantage of surviving infected female siblings (in the Coleoptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera and Pseudoscorpiones orders). Cytoplasmic incompatibility prevents infected males from successfully mating with females that lack the same Wolbachia types (in the Acari, Coleoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Isopoda, Lepidoptera and Orthoptera orders). A cross section of a male filarial nematode, Onchocerca ochengi, that contains Wolbachia is shown (bottom left), in which Wolbachia are falsely coloured yellow and fill three of the four syncytial lateral cord cells. Wolbachia (yellow) are also shown within the ovaries of a female Drosophila simulans (bottom right). The image on the bottom left is courtesy of M. Taylor, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, UK. The image on the bottom right is courtesy of M. Clark, University of Rochester, New York, USA.

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