FIGURE 1 | Schematic representation and electron micrographs of the Listeria monocytogenes life cycle.

From the following article:

Listeria monocytogenes: a multifaceted model

Mélanie Hamon, Hélène Bierne & Pascale Cossart

Nature Reviews Microbiology 4, 423-434 (June 2006)

doi:10.1038/nrmicro1413

Listeria monocytogenes: a multifaceted model

a | L. monocytogenes induces its entry into a non-professional phagocyte. b | Bacteria are internalized in a vacuole (also known as a phagosome). c,d | The membrane of the vacuole is disrupted by the secretion of two phospholipases, PlcA and PlcB, and the pore-forming toxin listeriolysin O. Bacteria are released into the cytoplasm, where they multiply and start to polymerize actin, as observed by the presence of the characteristic actin tails (see Supplementary information S3 (figure)). e | Actin polymerization allows bacteria to pass into a neighbouring cell by forming protrusions in the plasma membrane. f | On entry into the neighbouring cell, bacteria are present in a double-membraned vacuole, from which they can escape to perpetuate the cycle. F-actin, filamentous actin. Electron micrographs ac,ef are reproduced with permission from Ref. 113 © (1998) European Molecular Biology Organization, and d is reproduced with permission from Ref. 30 © (1992) Elsevier.

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