FIGURE 2 | Flagellar-based motility.

From the following article:

Going against the grain: chemotaxis and infection in Vibrio cholerae

Susan M. Butler & Andrew Camilli

Nature Reviews Microbiology 3, 611-620 (August 2005)

doi:10.1038/nrmicro1207

Going against the grain: chemotaxis and infection in Vibrio cholerae

There are many schemes for flagellation in bacteria, of which peritrichous flagella and a single polar (monotrichous) flagellum are two types. a | In the case of peritrichous flagella, such as those found in Escherichia coli, counter-clockwise (CCW) flagellar rotation results in the formation of a helical bundle that propels the cell forward in one direction in a smooth-swimming motion (a 'run'). By contrast, the presence of clockwise (CW) rotation causes unbundling of the helical bundle, allowing the bacterium to randomly reorient its direction (a 'tumble'). b | In the case of a single polar flagellum, CCW rotation propels the cell forward in a run, whereas CW rotation propels the cell backward with a concomitant random reorientation.

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