Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461, USA.
- Lisa Brown &
- Rafael Prados-Rosales
67 West Street #304, Brooklyn, New York 11222, USA.
- Julie M. Wolf
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA.
- Arturo Casadevall
Competing interests statement
The authors declare no competing interests.
Lisa Brown received her Ph.D. in 2015 from Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, USA, for her work in the laboratory of Arturo Casadevall. Her thesis work focused on vesiculogenesis in Gram-positive bacteria.
Julie M. Wolf
Julie M. Wolf was a postdoctoral fellow in the laboratory of Arturo Casadevall at Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, USA. She studied fungal extracellular vesicle biogenesis and the role of these vesicles in infection. She received her Ph.D. in 2010 from the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, USA, and is a feature editor of American Society for Microbiology journals.
Rafael Prados-Rosales is an assistant professor at Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, USA, in the Department of Microbiology and Immunology. His work focuses on vesiculogenesis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the development of conjugate anti-tuberculosis vaccines. He received his Ph.D. in fungal genetics from the University of Córdoba, Spain, in 2008.
Arturo Casadevall is a professor at the Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, USA. His work is focused on fungal pathogenesis and mechanisms of antibody action. He received both his M.D. and Ph.D. from New York University, USA.
- Virulence factors
Products that are important for infection by and survival of a pathogen. These factors can include adhesins, DNA, toxins and other molecules.
Surface-dwelling bacterial cultures that are highly resistant to disruption and removal. Biofilms can consist of a single species or a community of multiple microorganisms.
- Cell wall
The rigid structure that surrounds a microorganism and has a role in cell shape and homeostasis.
A pigmented molecule derived from laccase-assisted oxidation of dihydroxy phenol compounds. Melanin can protect cells against oxidative damage.
- Multivesicular bodies
(MVBs). A subset of endosomes that contain membrane-bound intraluminal vesicles that originate by budding into the MVB. Typically, MVBs fuse with the cell membrane to release the intraluminal vesicles into the extracellular space.
- B-band lipopolysaccharide
(B-band LPS). LPS that is highly charged at neutral pH owing to the presence of a large number of phosphate groups and long O side chains, in contrast to Aband LPS.
Iron-scavenging molecules produced by microorganisms. Some microorganisms can also steal siderophores from other microorganisms in order to obtain iron.
Filamentous fungi that reproduce sexually via the formation of specialized cells called basidia, which bear external spores called basidiospores. Some basidiomycetes can also reproduce asexually.
Fungi that, when reproducing sexually, form a structure called an ascus in which the spores are formed. Some ascomycetes can also reproduce asexually.
- Extracellular DNA
(eDNA). DNA that is present in the extracellular milieu and might function in intercellular communication. eDNA can also be a structural component of biofilms and neutrophil extracellular traps.
- Penicillin-binding proteins
Proteins that are essential for bacterial cell wall biogenesis and also have the capacity to bind to penicillin.
(GXM). A polysaccharide that is produced by the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans and is a major component of the cellular capsule.
A toxin with the ability to lyse cells.
A macrolide toxin that is produced by a group of mycobacteria and causes Buruli ulcers in humans. It is required for virulence, is cytotoxic and blocks the translocation of immune proteins into the endoplasmic reticulum as a mechanism of immunosuppression.
- Cholesterol microdomains
Lipid domains in the cellular lipid bilayer that are enriched in cholesterol.
- T helper 2 cell
(TH2 cells). A subset of CD4+ T cells that is of paramount importance for host defence against extracellular pathogens. TH2 cells secrete the cytokines interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, IL-6, IL-9, IL-10 and IL-13, leading to strong antibody responses.
- TH1 cell
A subset of CD4+ effector T cells that is required for host defence against intracellular viral and bacterial pathogens. TH1 cells secrete cytokines such as interferon-γ (IFNγ), interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-10 and lymphotoxin, promoting macrophage activation, nitric oxide production and cytotoxic T lymphocyte proliferation.
- Granulomatous inflammation
The aggregation of mononuclear inflammatory cells, which can be accompanied by the infiltration of other leukocytes or by necrosis.
- Koch phenomenon
A rapid inflammatory response that develops to a reinfection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and that is marked by necrotic lesions. The response is caused by hypersensitivity to products of the tubercle bacillus.
Synthetic liposomes with proteins embedded into the lipid bilayer.
- Lipidic nanovesicles
Nanoscale lipid-bilayer spheres or liposomes.