Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology 11, 50-61 (January 2010) | doi:10.1038/nrm2820

Sensors and regulators of intracellular pH

Joseph R. Casey1, Sergio Grinstein2 & John Orlowski3  About the authors


Protons dictate the charge and structure of macromolecules and are used as energy currency by eukaryotic cells. The unique function of individual organelles therefore depends on the establishment and stringent maintenance of a distinct pH. This, in turn, requires a means to sense the prevailing pH and to respond to deviations from the norm with effective mechanisms to transport, produce or consume proton equivalents. A dynamic, finely tuned balance between proton-extruding and proton-importing processes underlies pH homeostasis not only in the cytosol, but in other cellular compartments as well.

Author affiliations

  1. Departments of Physiology and Biochemistry, University of Alberta, Canada.
  2. Cell Biology Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada.
  3. Department of Physiology, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.

Correspondence to: Sergio Grinstein2 Email:

Published online 9 December 2009


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