Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are multipotent, self-renewing progenitors that generate all mature blood cells.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neuroinflammatory condition that affects the central nervous system and presents with various neurological and cognitive symptoms.
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a recently described family of lymphoid effector cells that have important roles in immune defence and tissue remodelling.
A global research effort over the past three decades has discovered more about HIV than perhaps any other pathogen.
Dendritic cells (DCs) are a heterogenous population of antigen-presenting cells that have crucial roles in promoting both pro- and anti-inflammatory immune responses.
Natural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes of the innate immune system that survey the body for stressed and abnormal cells.
Each individual T cell has a unique personality that is shaped by the environmental factors it encounters during its life history.
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a heterogeneous population of cells that are defined by their myeloid origin, immature state and ability to potently suppress T cell responses.
T cells are central to a successful immune response and their activation is mediated through the engagement of the T cell receptor (TCR) by peptide-bound MHC molecules expressed by antigen-presenting cells.
Regulatory T cells are vital for keeping the immune system in check, helping to avoid immune-mediated pathology and unrestricted expansion of effector T cell populations.
The process by which antigen-presenting cells digest proteins from inside or outside the cell and display the resulting antigenic peptide fragments on cell surface MHC molecules for recognition by T cells is central to the body's ability to detect signs of infection or abnormal cell growth.
After contact with antigen–presenting cells, naive CD4+ T cells begin to differentiate towards one of several fates, which has traditionally been viewed as a dichotomy between T helper 1 (TH1) and TH2 cells.
The innate immune system is the first line of defence against invading pathogens.
Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are characterized by extensive self-renewal capacity and the ability to differentiate into multiple cell lineages of the immune system.
Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) has important functions in the immune system impaired PI3K signalling can lead to immunodeficiency, whereas unrestrained PI3K signalling contributes to autoimmunity and leukaemia.
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize microbial products during infection and initiate signalling pathways that culminate in the increased expression of immune and inflammatory genes.