FIGURE 2 | Susceptibility genes for asthma and asthma-related traits.

From the following article:

Discovering susceptibility genes for asthma and allergy

Donata Vercelli

Nature Reviews Immunology 8, 169-182 (March 2008)

doi:10.1038/nri2257

Discovering susceptibility genes for asthma and allergy

Representation of the most robust asthma candidate genes identified through association studies or positional cloning in a cell-based framework. Among the genes discovered through association studies, the first group is involved in triggering the immune response and directing CD4+ T helper (TH)-cell differentiation. This group includes genes encoding pattern recognition receptors (CD14, TLR2, TLR4, TLR6, TLR10, NOD1 and NOD2), immunoregulatory cytokines (IL10 and TGFB1), the transcription factor STAT3, molecules involved in antigen presentation (HLA-DR, HLA-DQ and HLA-DP alleles) and the prostaglandin receptor PTGER2. The second group of asthma susceptibility genes includes those that regulate TH2-cell differentiation and TH2-cell effector functions (GATA3, TBX21, IL4, IL13, IL4RA, FCER1B, IL5, IL5RA, STAT6 and IL12B). The third group of genes is expressed in epithelial cells, and includes chemokines (CCL5, CCL11, CCL24 and CCL26), antimicrobial peptides (DEFB1), CC16 and factors involved in maintaining the integrity of the epithelial-cell barrier (SPINK5 and FLG). The group of asthma susceptibility genes discovered through positional-cloning approaches includes ADAM33, DPP10, PHF11, GPRA, HLA-G, IRAKM and COL29A1 (which encodes collagen XXIX). These genes are expressed in the epithelium and/or smooth muscle. ADAM33, a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain 33; CC16, Clara cell-specific 16 kD protein (also known as SCGB1A1); CCL, CC-chemokine ligand; CD14, monocyte differentiation antigen 14; COL29A1, collagen XXIX; DEFB1, defensin beta1; DPP10, dipeptidyl peptidase 10; FCERIB, high-affinity Fc receptor for IgE beta-chain; FLG, filaggrin; GATA3, GATA-binding protein 3; GPRA, G-protein-coupled receptor for asthma susceptibility (also known as NPSR1 and GPRA154); IL, interleukin; IL4RA, interleukin-4 receptor (alpha-chain); IL5RA, interleukin 5 receptor (alpha-chain); IRAKM, interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1; NOD, nucleotide-binding, oligomerization-domain-containing; PDGER2, prostaglandin E2 receptor; PHF11, plant homeodomain finger protein 11; SPINK5, serine protease inhibitor, Kazal-type, 5; STAT, signal transducer and activator of transcription; TBX21, T-box 21 (also known as T-bet); TCR, T-cell receptor; TGFb1, transforming growth factor-beta1; TH, T helper cell; TLR, Toll-like receptor; TReg, regulatory T cell.

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