FIGURE 1 | Stages of B-cell development.

From the following article:

B-cell anergy: from transgenic models to naturally occurring anergic B cells?

John C. Cambier, Stephen B. Gauld, Kevin T. Merrell & Barbara J. Vilen

Nature Reviews Immunology 7, 633-643 (August 2007)


B-cell anergy: from transgenic models to naturally occurring anergic B cells?

B-cell development occurs in both the bone marrow and peripheral lymphoid tissues such as the spleen. In the bone marrow, development progresses through the pro-B-cell, pre-B-cell and immature-B-cell stages. During this differentiation, rearrangements at the immunoglobulin locus result in the generation and surface expression of the pre-B-cell receptor (pre-BCR, which is comprised of an Igmu heavy chain and surrogate light chains (VpreB or Vlambda5)) and finally a mature BCR (comprised of rearranged heavy- and light-chain genes) that is capable of binding antigen. At this immature stage of development, B cells undergo a selection process to prevent any further development of self-reactive cells. Both receptor editing and clonal deletion have a role at this stage. Cells successfully completing this checkpoint leave the bone marrow as transitional B cells, eventually maturing into mature follicular B cells (or marginal-zone B cells). Following an immune response, antigen-specific B cells develop into either plasma (antibody-secreting) cells or memory B cells. Transitional 3 (T3) B cells, once thought to be part of the linear development from immature to mature B cells, are now thought to represent primarily self-reactive anergic B cells (also known as An1 B cells).

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