Emory University School of Medicine, Winship Cancer Institute, Atlanta, 30322 Georgia, USA.
- Andrew H. Miller
School of Human Ecology, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, 53706 Wisconsin, USA.
- Charles L. Raison
Competing interests statement
The authors declare no competing interests.
Andrew H. Miller
Andrew H. Miller received his M.D. from the Medical College of Georgia, USA, followed by a residency in psychiatry and a postdoctoral fellowship in biological psychiatry and psychopharmacology at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, USA. After serving as an associate professor at Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, USA, he joined the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Sciences at Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA, where he heads the Emory Behavioural Immunology Program as well as the Adult Outpatient Psychiatry Division. His work focuses on the impact of inflammation on the brain with a special interest on the effects of inflammatory cytokines on neurotransmitters and neurocircuits related to depression. More recently, his group has focused on translational studies examining the role of cytokine antagonists as antidepressants.
Charles L. Raison
Charles L. Raison is the Mike and Mary Sue Shannon Endowed Chair in Mind, Body, and Family Well-being and a professor at the School of Human Ecology and in the Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. He received his medical degree from Washington University, St Louis, Missouri, USA, and underwent residency training in psychiatry at the University of California, Los Angeles, California, USA. His research focuses on the development and treatment of depression and other stress-related emotional and physical conditions, with a special focus on immune–brain signalling mechanisms.
Members of the same species.
- Sickness behaviour
An adaptive response to illness, often precipitated by infection, that includes social withdrawal, decreased appetite, lethargy, impaired concentration, depressed mood, irritability, muscle aches and pain, and fever. This syndrome is believed to prioritize shifting of energy resources to fighting infection and wound healing.
A lack of interest in usually pleasurable activities that represents a decrease in motivation, which can either represent a decrease in the response to reward or in the willingness to expend effort to obtain reward.
- Major depressive disorder
A clinical syndrome of depression characterized by the primary symptoms of depressed mood and anhedonia, and diagnosed using criteria set forth by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition.
- Social defeat stress
A model of depression that entails repeated exposure to a conspecific animal screened for aggressive behaviour. The animals are placed together in the same cage where they are exposed to brief bouts of defeat lasting 5–10 minutes daily typically for 6–10 days.
- Myeloid-derived suppressor cells
A heterogeneous population of cells of myeloid origin that rapidly expands during inflammation and can potently suppress T cell responses. They are now being explored as potential therapeutic targets to inhibit immune responses in autoimmune disease or transplant rejection.
- Cytokine hypothesis of depression
A theoretical framework that suggests that cytokines have a primary role in alterations of neurotransmitter metabolism, neuroendocrine function, neuroplasticity, neurocircuitry and behaviour in a subgroup of patients with depression and increased inflammation.