Fred Ramsdell received his Ph.D. from the University of California, USA, followed by postdoctoral work at the National Institutes of Health, Maryland, USA. He currently directs the Discovery Immunology group for the Novo Nordisk Seattle Research Center, Washington, USA. The group is involved in the identification and validation of novel targets for the treatment of autoimmune diseases, including the induction of immune tolerance.
Steven F. Ziegler received his Ph.D. from the University of California, USA, and did postdoctoral work at the University of Washington, USA. He is currently Member and Director of the Immunology Program at the Benaroya Research Institute in Seattle, Washington, USA. His laboratory is interested in the role of cytokines in the establishment and breakdown of tolerance during autoimmunity and allergy.