Leukocyte migration through interstitial tissues is essential for mounting a successful immune response. Interstitial motility is governed by a vast array of cell-intrinsic and cell-extrinsic factors that together ensure the proper positioning of immune cells in the context of specific microenvironments. Recent advances in imaging modalities, in particular intravital confocal and multi-photon microscopy, have helped to expand our understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie leukocyte navigation in the extravascular space. In this Review, we discuss the key factors that regulate leukocyte motility within three-dimensional environments, with a focus on neutrophils and T cells in non-lymphoid organs.
At a glance
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