Table of contents


From the editors

p297 | doi:10.1038/nri2988

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Research Highlights

Granulocytes: A weighty role for eosinophils | PDF (115 KB)

p299 | doi:10.1038/nri2976

Eosinophils maintain glucose homeostasis by modulating macrophage phenotype in adipose tissue.

Cell death and immunity: Caspase 8 and RIPK3 play with life and death | PDF (156 KB)

p300 | doi:10.1038/nri2973

Caspase 8 inhibits RIPK3-mediated necroptosis in T cells.

T cell signalling: Heavy metal rocks T cells | PDF (151 KB)

p300 | doi:10.1038/nri2977

Zinc functions as an ionic signalling messenger to lower TCR activation thresholds.

In the news

Immunotherapy for metastatic melanoma approved | PDF (82 KB)

p300 | doi:10.1038/nri2981

In brief

T cell responses | Vaccines | PDF (95 KB)

p301 | doi:10.1038/nri2983

Antigen presentation: Cross-dress to impress | PDF (225 KB)

p302 | doi:10.1038/nri2979

APCs can present antigen by cross-dressing — the transfer of preformed peptide–MHC class I complexes to uninfected APCs.

Allergy: Shocking behaviour | PDF (337 KB)

p302 | doi:10.1038/nri2980

Neutrophils drive anaphylaxis by secreting platelet-activating factor.

Tumour immunology: Bad company | PDF (198 KB)

p303 | doi:10.1038/nri2984

Reducing the number of macrophages in primary breast cancer tumours in mice increases sensitivity to chemotherapy through a mechanism involving CD8+ T cells.

Innate immunity: Intracellular MHC class II: not just hiding | PDF (339 KB)

p304 | doi:10.1038/nri2978

Intracellular MHC class II molecules enhance TLR signalling in antigen-presenting cells by promoting the activity of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK).

Antiviral immunity: Flora against the flu | PDF (253 KB)

p304 | doi:10.1038/nri2982

Commensal bacteria promote influenza virus-specific adaptive immune responses in an inflammasome-dependent manner.

Allergy: Crystal clear culprit | PDF (317 KB)

p304 | doi:10.1038/nri2985

Uric acid crystals drive TH2-type inflammation and allergic airway disease.

In brief

Dendritic cells | Cell migration | Immunotherapy | PDF (86 KB)

p305 | doi:10.1038/nri2987

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Reviews

Design principles of adaptive immune systems

Thomas Boehm

p307 | doi:10.1038/nri2944

Here, Thomas Boehm considers the commonalities that underlie the adaptive immune systems of jawless and jawed vertebrates, including functionally distinct B- and T-like cells and anatomically segregated sites for their generation, as well somatically diversified and clonally expressed antigen receptors. The features that distinguish the adaptive immune systems in these vertebrate groups are also considered.

Illuminating viral infections in the nervous system

Dorian B. McGavern & Silvia S. Kang

p318 | doi:10.1038/nri2971

This Review describes the anatomical features of the central nervous system (CNS) barriers and focuses on the way in which the immune system responds to neurotropic viruses that establish latent or persistent infections in the CNS. It also discusses imaging technologies that can be used to understand viral entry and antiviral immune responses in the CNS.

Harnessing the biology of IL-7 for therapeutic application

Crystal L. Mackall, Terry J. Fry & Ronald E. Gress

p330 | doi:10.1038/nri2970

Interleukin-7 (IL-7) induces T cell proliferation and enhances antigen-specific immune responses: attributes that pinpoint its value as a potential therapeutic agent. This Review summarizes preclinical and clinical data on the immunorestorative effects of IL-7 in various pathologies and discusses the conditions for which IL-7 therapy might be of use.

Immunological biomarkers of tuberculosis

Gerhard Walzl, Katharina Ronacher, Willem Hanekom, Thomas J. Scriba & Alimuddin Zumla

p343 | doi:10.1038/nri2960

The improvement of tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment regimens depends on the identification of suitable biomarkers. Analysis of host immunological markers at diagnosis and throughout treatment may aid new drug development and the clinical management of individual patients.

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Perspectives

Opinion

Overcoming hurdles in developing successful drugs targeting chemokine receptors

Thomas J. Schall & Amanda E. I. Proudfoot

p355 | doi:10.1038/nri2972

Despite the frequently proposed 'redundancy' of the chemokine system, these authors put forward the opinion that targeting a single chemokine receptor can be effective in treating inflammatory disease provided that the in vivo potency is sufficient.