Nature Reviews Immunology 10, 159-169 (March 2010) | doi:10.1038/nri2710
Corrected online: 07 April 2015

There is an Erratum (May 2015) associated with this Review.

Immune adaptations that maintain homeostasis with the intestinal microbiota

Lora V. Hooper1 & Andrew J. Macpherson2  About the authors


Humans harbour nearly 100 trillion intestinal bacteria that are essential for health. Millions of years of co-evolution have moulded this human–microorganism interaction into a symbiotic relationship in which gut bacteria make essential contributions to human nutrient metabolism and in return occupy a nutrient-rich environment. Although intestinal microorganisms carry out essential functions for their hosts, they pose a constant threat of invasion owing to their sheer numbers and the large intestinal surface area. In this Review, we discuss the unique adaptations of the intestinal immune system that maintain homeostatic interactions with a diverse resident microbiota.

Author affiliations

  1. The Howard Hughes Medical Institute and The Department of Immunology, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA.
  2. The Department of Clinical Research (DFK), Maurice Müller Laboratories, Universitätsklinik für Viszerale Chirurgie und Medizin (UVCM), University of Bern, 3008 Bern, Switzerland and Farncombe Family Digestive Health Research Institute, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L8, Canada.

* In figure 4 of the original article, the cytokines that promote the differentiation of T helper 2 (TH2) cells and TH17 cells were included in the wrong order. This has now been corrected in the online HTML and PDF versions of the article. Nature Reviews Immunology apologizes for this error.


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