FIGURE 3 | Ubiquity of branching structures in living organisms.

From the following article:

The phenogenetic logic of life

Kenneth M. Weiss

Nature Reviews Genetics 6, 36-45 (January 2005)

doi:10.1038/nrg1502

The phenogenetic logic of life

Multiple applications of branching logic show the logical symmetry of evolution among organisms and development within them. a | Charles Darwin's attempt to reconstruct Ernst von Baer's idea that embryos of contemporary similar species, such as vertebrates, have diverged from a common early-embryonic form. b | Darwin's sketch of his idea of divergence of species from a common ancestor. c | Divergence of the sequence of a single gene, or members of a gene family, from a common ancestor (the example of photoreceptors and olfactory receptors is shown). d | The divergence of tissues from a single cell within an organism. e | Schematic representation of the fractal-like mammalian bronchial (lung) tree. f | The source of the metaphor — real branches. Part d is modified from Ref. 53; ac and e are reproduced from Ref. 11 © (2004) Wiley-Liss.

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