Human Genome Sequencing Center and Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.
- Jeffrey Rogers &
- Richard A. Gibbs
Competing interests statement
The authors declare no competing interests.
Jeffrey Rogers is Associate Professor in the Human Genome Sequencing Center and the Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA. His research focuses on the genomics of non-human primates, analyses of new genome assemblies, investigation of genetic variation in primate species used as models of disease and targeted analyses of primate models of psychiatric disorders.
Richard A. Gibbs
Richard A. Gibbs is Director of the Human Genome Sequencing Center and holds the Wofford Cain Chair of Molecular and Human Genetics at Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA. His work includes many aspects of human and comparative genomics, with a particular emphasis on application of new technologies to research concerning Mendelian disorders, cancer and common metabolic disease, as well as the introduction of genomics into diagnostic and clinical practice.
Members of the evolutionary lineage leading to humans after divergence from the ancestors of chimpanzees. Hominins include species that are directly ancestral to modern humans and related species such as Neanderthals or older branches such as australopithecines.
- Old World monkeys
Members of the branch of primates that includes extant anthropoid primates (monkeys) native to Asia and Africa; they belong to the superfamily Cercopithecoidea.
- New World monkeys
Members of the branch of primates that includes extant anthropoid primates (monkeys) native to South and Central America; they belong to the parvorder Platyrrhini.
- Positive selection
Natural selection acting on phenotypes and the relevant DNA sequences that results in directional change towards a new sequence and phenotype. It is in contrast with negative selection, which eliminates deleterious traits and therefore acts against any new mutations that generate them.
- Effective population sizes
A basic concept from population genetics that describes the number of individuals required in an ideal breeding population (that is, equal numbers of breeding males and females, with equal reproductive success among them) of constant size to sustain a given amount of intra-population genetic variation. As genetic variation in a given population is affected by current and past demographic factors, estimation of effective population size allows researchers to infer aspects of population history.
- Coalescent models
Used in population genetics to investigate various aspects of population history and dynamics, these models are based on the genealogy or relationships within a gene tree among alleles of a specific DNA sequence. All alleles found in a population or a set of related populations can be traced back to a common ancestral sequence, and the statistical properties of those allelic relationships are exploited to investigate questions of population genetics and history.
- Incomplete lineage sorting
(ILS). The process by which, as a result of segregation of an ancestral polymorphism, the evolutionary relationships among a series of homologous DNA sequences in a set of distinct populations do not match the phylogenetic relationships among the overall populations; that is, the gene trees do not match the population trees.
Pertaining to separate, non-overlapping geographical distributions.
- Strepsirrhine primates
Members of the branch of primates that includes lemurs, lorises, galagos and cheirogaleids, and that belongs to the suborder Strepsirrhini.
- Hybrid zones
Geographical areas that are often, but not always, elongated and narrow in shape, where two distinct species occur together, mate and produce hybrid offspring that are fertile.
Pertaining to geographical distributions that are adjoining but that do not overlap extensively.
The transfer of alleles or genes by hybridization and gene flow from one species to another.
- Catarrhine primates
Members of the primate evolutionary lineage that includes Old World monkeys (superfamily Cercopithecoidea) or hominoids (superfamily Hominoidea). The catarrhines include all extant apes, anthropoid monkeys native to Asia and Africa, and humans.