Browse Articles

  • Primer |

    Radiotherapy is used in >50% of patients with cancer but may be associated with short-term toxicity and long-term consequences. This Primer summarizes the mechanisms by which normal tissues are affected by irradiation, the techniques to mitigate such damage and how to treat the symptoms of radiotherapy toxicity.

    • Dirk De Ruysscher
    • , Gabriele Niedermann
    • , Neil G. Burnet
    • , Shankar Siva
    • , Anne W. M. Lee
    •  & Fiona Hegi-Johnson
  • PrimeView |

    Radiotherapy can be used with curative intent or to palliate symptoms in many patients with cancer. This PrimeView explores how irradiation to nearby adjacent tissues can be associated with short-term toxicity and long-term consequences.

  • PrimeView |

    This PrimeView accompanies the Primer on Medulloblastoma by Pfister et al., and describes the quality of life issues faced by patients with this disease.

  • Primer |

    This Primer by Pfister and colleagues reviews the molecular genetics, diagnosis and management of medulloblastoma and touches upon the quality of life of patients and future outlooks.

    • Paul A. Northcott
    • , Giles W. Robinson
    • , Christian P. Kratz
    • , Donald J. Mabbott
    • , Scott L. Pomeroy
    • , Steven C. Clifford
    • , Stefan Rutkowski
    • , David W. Ellison
    • , David Malkin
    • , Michael D. Taylor
    • , Amar Gajjar
    •  & Stefan M. Pfister
  • PrimeView |

    This illustrated PrimeView provides an overview of the epidemiology, clinical features, cellular mechanisms and management of the main forms of Kaposi sarcoma.

  • Primer |

    Kaposi sarcoma is a rare cancer that typically presents with multiple pigmented skin lesions, but may take an aggressive course characterised by lesion ulceration, oedema and visceral organ involvement. This Primer describes the epidemiology, clinical features, cellular mechanisms and management of the main forms of Kaposi sarcoma.

    • Ethel Cesarman
    • , Blossom Damania
    • , Susan E. Krown
    • , Jeffrey Martin
    • , Mark Bower
    •  & Denise Whitby
  • PrimeView |

    The WHO defines female subfertility as failure to achieve a clinical pregnancy after 12 months of regular intercourse or due to impairment of a woman’s capacity to reproduce. This PrimeView highlights some of the mechanisms that may contribute to this condition.

  • Primer |

    Subfertility affects one in six couples worldwide and is associated with emotional distress and reduced quality of life. This Primer by Farquhar and colleagues discusses the causes, diagnosis and treatment of female subfertility.

    • Cynthia M. Farquhar
    • , Siladitya Bhattacharya
    • , Sjoerd Repping
    • , Sebastiaan Mastenbroek
    • , Mohan S. Kamath
    • , Jane Marjoribanks
    •  & Jacky Boivin
  • Primer |

    An estimated 20% of all patients with cancer will develop brain metastases, with the majority of brain metastases occurring in those with lung and breast cancer and melanoma. This Primer describes the mechanisms by which cancer cells migrate to the brain and the key advances necessary to improve the prognosis for patients with brain metastases.

    • Achal Singh Achrol
    • , Robert C. Rennert
    • , Carey Anders
    • , Riccardo Soffietti
    • , Manmeet S. Ahluwalia
    • , Lakshmi Nayak
    • , Solange Peters
    • , Nils D. Arvold
    • , Griffith R. Harsh
    • , Patricia S. Steeg
    •  & Steven D. Chang
  • PrimeView |

    This PrimeView highlights the current treatment of brain metastases, which occur in approximately 20% of patients with cancer.

  • Primer |

    Coeliac disease is an immune-mediated enteropathy driven by dietary gluten present in wheat, rye and barley. This Primer discusses the risk factors and immune mechanisms of coeliac disease and highlights future treatment options beyond the gluten-free diet.

    • Katri Lindfors
    • , Carolina Ciacci
    • , Kalle Kurppa
    • , Knut E. A. Lundin
    • , Govind K. Makharia
    • , M. Luisa Mearin
    • , Joseph A. Murray
    • , Elena F. Verdu
    •  & Katri Kaukinen
  • PrimeView |

    This PrimeView highlights the pathophysiology of coeliac disease, a systemic disorder driven by the ingestion of dietary gluten and characterized by diverse intestinal and extraintestinal manifestations.

  • Primer |

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common soft tissue sarcoma in children. This Primer highlights RMS epidemiology and disease mechanisms and presents the state of the art in clinical care, including diagnostics, risk-based disease management and prevention of late treatment effects.

    • Stephen X. Skapek
    • , Andrea Ferrari
    • , Abha A. Gupta
    • , Philip J. Lupo
    • , Erin Butler
    • , Janet Shipley
    • , Frederic G. Barr
    •  & Douglas S. Hawkins
  • PrimeView |

    This illustrated PrimeView highlights rhabdomyosarcoma epidemiology, disease mechanisms, diagnosis, risk-based disease management, and prevention of late treatment effects.

  • PrimeView |

    This PrimeView accompanies the Primer on Low back pain by Vlaeyen and colleagues, and highlights the management of this condition.

  • Primer |

    Low back pain is one of the leading causes of years lived with disability worldwide. This Primer by Vlaeyen and colleagues reviews the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of low back pain and discusses the potential contributors, underlying mechanisms and neurobiology of back pain.

    • Johan W. S. Vlaeyen
    • , Chris G. Maher
    • , Katja Wiech
    • , Jan Van Zundert
    • , Carolina Beraldo Meloto
    • , Luda Diatchenko
    • , Michele C. Battié
    • , Marielle Goossens
    • , Bart Koes
    •  & Steven J. Linton
  • PrimeView |

    This illustrated PrimeView summarizes the pathophysiology, epidemiology, diagnosis and management of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (PKD) and autosomal recessive PKD.

  • Primer |

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (PKD) and autosomal recessive PKD are progressive cilia-related disorders that often lead to chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease. This Primer provides an overview of the current knowledge of PKD pathogenesis and its treatment.

    • Carsten Bergmann
    • , Lisa M. Guay-Woodford
    • , Peter C. Harris
    • , Shigeo Horie
    • , Dorien J. M. Peters
    •  & Vicente E. Torres
  • Primer |

    Neonatal abstinence syndrome refers to the signs and symptoms in a neonate that are caused by the cessation of prenatal exposure (via placental transfer) to various substances. In particular, opioid use or misuse during pregnancy can lead to neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome.

    • Mara G. Coyle
    • , Susan B. Brogly
    • , Mahmoud S. Ahmed
    • , Stephen W. Patrick
    •  & Hendrée E. Jones
  • PrimeView |

    This PrimeView accompanies the Primer by Coyle and colleagues and highlights how the optimal treatment of neonatal abstinence syndrome begins prenatally, by identifying pregnant women with opioid use or misuse and providing them with medical and social support.

  • Author Correction |

    • Massimo Filippi
    • , Amit Bar-Or
    • , Fredrik Piehl
    • , Paolo Preziosa
    • , Alessandra Solari
    • , Sandra Vukusic
    •  & Maria A. Rocca
  • Primer |

    Bronchiectasis refers to dilatation in the bronchi, as detected by radiological examination. Often the result of other diseases, bronchiectasis is also a disease in its own right and can lead to chronic infections, inflammation, airway damage and, ultimately, reduced lung function and respiratory failure.

    • James D. Chalmers
    • , Anne B. Chang
    • , Sanjay H. Chotirmall
    • , Raja Dhar
    •  & Pamela J. McShane
  • PrimeView |

    This PrimeView highlights the pathophysiological mechanisms of bronchiectasis: impaired mucociliary clearance and airway obstruction can promote persistent bacterial infections and dysregulated immune responses. These mechanisms can interact and self-perpetuate, leading over time to impaired lung function.

  • Primer |

    Multiple sclerosis is characterized by the formation of demyelination lesions throughout the central nervous system, leading to neurological dysfunction. This Primer provides an overview of the immunopathology, diagnosis and management of multiple sclerosis.

    • Massimo Filippi
    • , Amit Bar-Or
    • , Fredrik Piehl
    • , Paolo Preziosa
    • , Alessandra Solari
    • , Sandra Vukusic
    •  & Maria A. Rocca
  • PrimeView |

    This illustrated PrimeView provides an overview of the immunology, diagnosis and management of multiple sclerosis.

  • PrimeView |

    This PrimeView illustrates the mechanisms, diagnosis and management of gastroparesis; a chronic disorder defined by delayed gastric emptying, which is associated with symptoms of nausea and vomiting.

  • Primer |

    Gastroparesis is a chronic disorder characterized by gastric neuromuscular dysfunction, which causes delayed gastric emptying that is associated with symptoms of nausea and vomiting. This Primer describes different causes of gastroparesis and highlights specific diagnostic tests and management strategies.

    • Michael Camilleri
    • , Victor Chedid
    • , Alexander C. Ford
    • , Ken Haruma
    • , Michael Horowitz
    • , Karen L. Jones
    • , Phillip A. Low
    • , Seon-Young Park
    • , Henry P. Parkman
    •  & Vincenzo Stanghellini
  • Author Correction |

    • Catherine M. Greene
    • , Stefan J. Marciniak
    • , Jeffrey Teckman
    • , Ilaria Ferrarotti
    • , Mark L. Brantly
    • , David A. Lomas
    • , James K. Stoller
    •  & Noel G. McElvaney
  • Primer |

    Systemic immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis is a disease characterized by the tissue accumulation of amyloid fibrillar aggregates, which leads to organ dysfunction. This Primer discusses the molecular mechanisms of this form of amyloidosis and highlights management strategies that have improved quality of life and survival.

    • Giampaolo Merlini
    • , Angela Dispenzieri
    • , Vaishali Sanchorawala
    • , Stefan O. Schönland
    • , Giovanni Palladini
    • , Philip N. Hawkins
    •  & Morie A. Gertz
  • PrimeView |

    This PrimeView highlights disease mechanisms and management strategies for systemic immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis, which is a disease characterized by the tissue accumulation of amyloid fibrillar aggregates and organ dysfunction.

  • Author Correction |

    • Bettina Balint
    • , Niccolò E. Mencacci
    • , Enza Maria Valente
    • , Antonio Pisani
    • , John Rothwell
    • , Joseph Jankovic
    • , Marie Vidailhet
    •  & Kailash P. Bhatia
  • Primer |

    An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an enlargement of the abdominal aorta. As the AAA grows, the aortic wall becomes progressively thin, and the risk of rupture increases; AAA rupture causes severe intra-abdominal haemorrhage and has a very high mortality.

    • Natzi Sakalihasan
    • , Jean-Baptiste Michel
    • , Athanasios Katsargyris
    • , Helena Kuivaniemi
    • , Jean-Olivier Defraigne
    • , Alain Nchimi
    • , Janet T. Powell
    • , Koichi Yoshimura
    •  & Rebecka Hultgren
  • PrimeView |

    An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an abnormal enlargement of the infrarenal aorta. The pathophysiological mechanisms of AAAs lead to the weakening and thinning of the aortic wall, which can rupture and cause life-threatening haemorrhage.

  • PrimeView |

    This PrimeView highlights the mechanisms of immune-mediated neuropathies, a group of disorders that are caused by an immune response to peripheral nerve antigens, leading to muscle weakness, sensory deficits and other symptoms.

  • Primer |

    This Primer discusses the epidemiology, mechanisms, differential diagnosis and management of the immune-mediated neuropathies — a large group of disorders that includes Guillain–Barré syndrome, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy and multifocal motor neuropathy, among other disorders.

    • Bernd C. Kieseier
    • , Emily K. Mathey
    • , Claudia Sommer
    •  & Hans-Peter Hartung
  • PrimeView |

    This illustrated PrimeView summarizes the biology, epidemiology, diagnosis and management of testicular germ cell tumours, which are the most common type of testicular cancer.

  • Primer |

    Testicular cancer, which is the most common malignancy among men between 14 and 44 years of age, has a cure rate of >90%. This Primer provides an overview of the biology, epidemiology, diagnosis and current treatment guidelines for testicular cancer, with a focus on germ cell tumours.

    • Liang Cheng
    • , Peter Albers
    • , Daniel M. Berney
    • , Darren R. Feldman
    • , Gedske Daugaard
    • , Timothy Gilligan
    •  & Leendert H. J. Looijenga
  • Primer |

    Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) are a diverse group of disorders that can manifest at any stage of life. This Primer by Platt and colleagues provides an overview of the LSDs, including how lysosomal dysfunction gives rise to disease and how these disorders are diagnosed and treated. An overview of future therapeutic targets for LSDs is also provided.

    • Frances M. Platt
    • , Alessandra d’Azzo
    • , Beverly L. Davidson
    • , Elizabeth F. Neufeld
    •  & Cynthia J. Tifft
  • PrimeView |

    This illustrated PrimeView highlights the mechanisms of lysosomal storage disorders, a group of genetic diseases that are characterized by the accumulation of macromolecules inside lysosomes.

  • PrimeView |

    This illustrated PrimeView discusses the epidemiology, mechanisms, diagnosis and management of dystonia.

  • Primer |

    Dystonia can be classified as isolated or combined depending on the absence or presence of additional symptoms, respectively. This Primer discusses the epidemiology, mechanisms, diagnosis and management of isolated dystonia and touches upon combined dystonia where required.

    • Bettina Balint
    • , Niccolò E. Mencacci
    • , Enza Maria Valente
    • , Antonio Pisani
    • , John Rothwell
    • , Joseph Jankovic
    • , Marie Vidailhet
    •  & Kailash P. Bhatia
  • Primer |

    Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is defined as severe kidney functional impairment that occurs in patients with liver cirrhosis. This Primer discusses new diagnostic criteria of acute kidney injury in the context of HRS and also covers pathophysiology and management of this serious disorder.

    • Pere Ginès
    • , Elsa Solà
    • , Paolo Angeli
    • , Florence Wong
    • , Mitra K. Nadim
    •  & Patrick S. Kamath
  • PrimeView |

    This illustrated PrimeView focuses on the pathophysiology of acute kidney injury-hepatorenal syndrome and also discusses the diagnosis and management of this serious disorder.

  • Primer |

    Wilson disease is an inherited disorder of copper metabolism that is characterized by the pathological accumulation of copper. This Primer describes the pathogenesis of this disorder and outlines diagnostic and management strategies.

    • Anna Członkowska
    • , Tomasz Litwin
    • , Petr Dusek
    • , Peter Ferenci
    • , Svetlana Lutsenko
    • , Valentina Medici
    • , Janusz K. Rybakowski
    • , Karl Heinz Weiss
    •  & Michael L. Schilsky
  • PrimeView |

    This PrimeView illustrates the pathogenetic pathways involved in Wilson disease, and discusses diagnosis and management.

  • PrimeView |

    REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) is characterized by a loss of muscle atonia during REM sleep, leading to excess muscle tone and abnormal behaviours. This PrimeView focuses on the diagnosis of RBD, which typically relies on clinical interview and video polysomnography.

  • Primer |

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) is characterized by a loss of muscle atonia and abnormal behaviours during REM sleep. This Primer discusses the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of RBD as well as the relationship and implications of the relationship between idiopathic RBD and neurodegenerative disease.

    • Yves Dauvilliers
    • , Carlos H. Schenck
    • , Ronald B. Postuma
    • , Alex Iranzo
    • , Pierre-Herve Luppi
    • , Giuseppe Plazzi
    • , Jacques Montplaisir
    •  & Bradley Boeve
  • Publisher Correction |

    • Helmut K. Seitz
    • , Ramon Bataller
    • , Helena Cortez-Pinto
    • , Bin Gao
    • , Antoni Gual
    • , Carolin Lackner
    • , Philippe Mathurin
    • , Sebastian Mueller
    • , Gyongyi Szabo
    •  & Hidekazu Tsukamoto