Browse Articles

  • PrimeView |

    Snakebite envenoming is a neglected tropical disease that affects 1.8–2.7 million people worldwide, especially in impoverished areas of the warmer tropics and subtropics. Clinical manifestations vary from local tissue damage to life-threatening systemic effects and chronic disability, such as amputation.

  • Primer |

    Snakebite envenoming is a neglected tropical disease that particularly affects impoverished populations in the rural tropics. This Primer describes the efforts toward reducing the burden of snakebites, which require input from private, public and non-profit stakeholders worldwide.

    • José María Gutiérrez
    • , Juan J. Calvete
    • , Abdulrazaq G. Habib
    • , Robert A. Harrison
    • , David J. Williams
    •  & David A. Warrell
  • PrimeView |

    Chronic pancreatitis is attributed to alcohol abuse in the majority of cases. Tobacco smoking is an independent risk factor; other causes include genetic factors, metabolic disorders, chronic obstructive causes (for example, ductal stones), autoimmunity and idiopathic mechanisms.

  • Primer |

    Chronic pancreatitis is characterized by chronic inflammation of the pancreas that results in progressive scarring of the pancreatic tissue, pain and pancreatic gland dysfunction. In this Primer, Kleeff et al. describe the current understanding of chronic pancreatitis and its complications.

    • Jorg Kleeff
    • , David C. Whitcomb
    • , Tooru Shimosegawa
    • , Irene Esposito
    • , Markus M. Lerch
    • , Thomas Gress
    • , Julia Mayerle
    • , Asbjørn Mohr Drewes
    • , Vinciane Rebours
    • , Fatih Akisik
    • , J. Enrique Domínguez Muñoz
    •  & John P. Neoptolemos
  • Primer |

    Hypoparathyroidism is a disease characterized by inadequately low circulating levels of parathyroid hormone resulting in low calcium levels and increased phosphate levels in the blood. In this Primer, Mannstadt et al. summarize current knowledge of the prevalence, pathophysiology, clinical presentation and management of hypoparathyroidism.

    • Michael Mannstadt
    • , John P. Bilezikian
    • , Rajesh V. Thakker
    • , Fadil M. Hannan
    • , Bart L. Clarke
    • , Lars Reijnmark
    • , Deborah M. Mitchell
    • , Tamara J. Vokes
    • , Karen K. Winer
    •  & Dolores M. Shoback
  • PrimeView |

    Hypoparathyroidism is characterized by hypocalcaemia and inadequately low circulating levels of parathyroid hormone. This PrimeView focuses on the different causes of this rare condition, which include damage or inadvertent removal of the parathyroid gland during neck surgery and genetic, idiopathic and autoimmune aetiologies.

  • Primer |

    Heart failure can be broadly divided into two categories: heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). HFrEF accounts for approximately 50% of all cases of heart failure in the United States and is the focus of this Primer by Butler and colleagues.

    • Michelle W. Bloom
    • , Barry Greenberg
    • , Tiny Jaarsma
    • , James L. Januzzi
    • , Carolyn S. P. Lam
    • , Aldo P. Maggioni
    • , Jean-Noël Trochu
    •  & Javed Butler
  • PrimeView |

    This illustrated PrimeView accompanies the Primer on Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction by Butler and colleagues, and focuses on the diagnosis and staging of heart failure, which is crucial for the management of patients.

  • PrimeView |

    Osteogenesis imperfecta — also known as brittle bone disease — is a phenotypically and genotypically heterogeneous group of inherited bone dysplasias. This PrimeView illustrates the key mechanisms involved.

  • Primer |

    Osteogenesis imperfecta — also known as brittle bone disease — is a heterogeneous group of inherited bone dysplasias characterized by skeletal deformity and bone fragility. In this Primer, Marini et al. provide an overview of the epidemiology, genetics, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of osteogenesis imperfecta.

    • Joan C. Marini
    • , Antonella Forlino
    • , Hans Peter Bächinger
    • , Nick J. Bishop
    • , Peter H. Byers
    • , Anne De Paepe
    • , Francois Fassier
    • , Nadja Fratzl-Zelman
    • , Kenneth M. Kozloff
    • , Deborah Krakow
    • , Kathleen Montpetit
    •  & Oliver Semler
  • Primer |

    Malaria is a mosquito-transmitted infection that affects more than 200 million people worldwide, with the highest morbidity and mortality in Africa. Elimination, through vector control approaches and chemoprevention, is within reach, but is threatened by the emergence of drug-resistant strains of mosquitoes and Plasmodium spp., the infectious parasite.

    • Margaret A. Phillips
    • , Jeremy N. Burrows
    • , Christine Manyando
    • , Rob Hooft van Huijsduijnen
    • , Wesley C. Van Voorhis
    •  & Timothy N. C. Wells
  • PrimeView |

    Malaria can be effectively prevented: this PrimeView highlights the roles of vector control approaches (the use of insecticides and physical barriers, such as bed nets) and chemoprevention (with mass administration of antimalarial drugs) in reducing disease burden.

  • Correction |

    • Allen C. Steere
    • , Strle Franc
    • , Gary P. Wormser
    • , Linden T. Hu
    • , John A. Branda
    • , Joppe W. R. Hovius
    • , Xin Li
    •  & Paul S. Mead
  • PrimeView |

    Oesophageal cancer comprises two biologically distinct entities: oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC). This PrimeView focuses on the pathophysiology of oesophageal cancer and highlights the differences in risk factors, development and disease progression between OSCC and OAC.

  • Primer |

    Oesophageal cancer is the sixth most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide and comprises two major subtypes — oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma and oesophageal adenocarcinoma — which are epidemiologically and biologically distinct. In this Primer, Cunningham and colleagues describe the epidemiology, pathophysiology and management of oesophageal cancer.

    • Elizabeth C. Smyth
    • , Jesper Lagergren
    • , Rebecca C. Fitzgerald
    • , Florian Lordick
    • , Manish A. Shah
    • , Pernilla Lagergren
    •  & David Cunningham
  • Primer |

    Multiple myeloma — a malignancy of terminally differentiated plasma cells — is the second most common haematological malignancy. This Primer by Kumar et al. highlights the mechanisms and epidemiology of multiple myeloma, and describes how updates to the diagnostic criteria have impacted patient management.

    • Shaji K. Kumar
    • , Vincent Rajkumar
    • , Robert A. Kyle
    • , Mark van Duin
    • , Pieter Sonneveld
    • , María-Victoria Mateos
    • , Francesca Gay
    •  & Kenneth C. Anderson
  • Correction |

    • Ralph Green
    • , Lindsay H. Allen
    • , Anne-Lise Bjørke-Monsen
    • , Alex Brito
    • , Jean-Louis Guéant
    • , Joshua W. Miller
    • , Anne M. Molloy
    • , Ebba Nexo
    • , Sally Stabler
    • , Ban-Hock Toh
    • , Per Magne Ueland
    •  & Chittaranjan Yajnik
  • PrimeView |

    The diagnosis of multiple myeloma, which includes bone marrow biopsy, clinical examination and radiographic imaging, is the main focus of this illustrated PrimeView, which accompanies the Primer on multiple myeloma by Kumar et al.

  • Primer |

    Tumour-induced osteomalacia (TIO), also known as oncogenic osteomalacia, is a rare paraneoplastic disorder caused by tumours that secrete fibroblast growth factor 23. Clinically, TIO is associated with hypophosphataemia and skeletal abnormalities. This Primer focuses on the epidemiological, pathophysiological, diagnostic and clinical aspects of TIO.

    • Salvatore Minisola
    • , Munro Peacock
    • , Seijii Fukumoto
    • , Cristiana Cipriani
    • , Jessica Pepe
    • , Sri Harsha Tella
    •  & Michael T. Collins
  • PrimeView |

    Tumour-induced osteomalacia (TIO) — caused by tumours that secrete fibroblast growth factor 23 — is characterized by hypophosphataemia and skeletal abnormalities. Tumours causing TIO are difficult to locate, as they are often small and can occur in soft tissue or bone anywhere in the body.

  • Primer |

    Urinary incontinence symptoms in women are prevalent and substantially affect health-related quality of life. These issues are compounded by the limited attention that urinary incontinence receives at the policy or research-funding levels. Despite these challenges, the field has witnessed considerable innovations in practice over the past decade, which are summarized in this Primer.

    • Yoshitaka Aoki
    • , Heidi W. Brown
    • , Linda Brubaker
    • , Jean Nicolas Cornu
    • , J. Oliver Daly
    •  & Rufus Cartwright
  • PrimeView |

    Urinary incontinence in women typically begins during pregnancy, after childbirth or at the time of menopause; symptoms can worsen or improve over time. This PrimeView focuses on some of the mechanisms underlying the condition, as well as how patients can be diagnosed and treated.

  • Primer |

    Vitamin B12 (also known as cobalamin) is a B vitamin that has an important role in cellular metabolism, especially in DNA synthesis, methylation and mitochondrial metabolism. In this Primer, Green et al. describe the causes, consequences and management of vitamin B12 deficiency.

    • Ralph Green
    • , Lindsay H. Allen
    • , Anne-Lise Bjørke-Monsen
    • , Alex Brito
    • , Jean-Louis Guéant
    • , Joshua W. Miller
    • , Anne M. Molloy
    • , Ebba Nexo
    • , Sally Stabler
    • , Ban-Hock Toh
    • , Per Magne Ueland
    •  & Chittaranjan Yajnik