Browse Articles

  • Primer |

    Urothelial bladder cancer is one of the most common, and most deadly, malignant diseases worldwide. This Primer summarizes the current epidemiological and outcome data of patients with this disease, as well as describing how new molecular subtyping strategies might improve patient care in the future.

    • Oner Sanli
    • , Jakub Dobruch
    • , Margaret A. Knowles
    • , Maximilian Burger
    • , Mehrdad Alemozaffar
    • , Matthew E. Nielsen
    •  & Yair Lotan
  • PrimeView |

    Bladder cancer is typically diagnosed cystoscopically after blood in the urine is detected. This PrimeView highlights some of the key facts of this common cancer.

  • PrimeView |

    This PrimeView highlights the difficulty in reaching a conclusive diagnosis of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), a rare but potentially lethal microangiopathy characterized by thrombocytopenia, haemolytic anaemia and ischaemic organ damage.

  • Primer |

    Haemolytic anaemia, thrombocytopenia and microthrombi are hallmarks of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), a rare microangiopathy that can cause severe ischaemic organ damage. The majority of cases have an autoimmune aetiology and, therefore, can be managed with immunosuppressive drugs, in addition to plasma therapy.

    • Johanna A. Kremer Hovinga
    • , Paul Coppo
    • , Bernhard Lämmle
    • , Joel L. Moake
    • , Toshiyuki Miyata
    •  & Karen Vanhoorelbeke
  • PrimeView |

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic disease characterized by insulin deficiency as a consequence of pancreatic β-cell loss. This PrimeView highlights the mechanisms underlying T1DM, including immunemediated pancreatic β-cell loss.

  • Primer |

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus is an autoimmune disease that is characterized by insulin deficiency due to pancreatic β-cell loss and results in hyperglycaemia. This Primer by Lernmark and colleagues describes this chronic disorder, which requires lifelong insulin administration and affects >500,000 children worldwide.

    • Anastasia Katsarou
    • , Soffia Gudbjörnsdottir
    • , Araz Rawshani
    • , Dana Dabelea
    • , Ezio Bonifacio
    • , Barbara J. Anderson
    • , Laura M. Jacobsen
    • , Desmond A. Schatz
    •  & Åke Lernmark
  • Primer |

    Parkinson disease is a common neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by neuronal loss in the substantia nigra, which causes striatal dopamine deficiency. In this Primer, Poewe et al. discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of Parkinson disease.

    • Werner Poewe
    • , Klaus Seppi
    • , Caroline M. Tanner
    • , Glenda M. Halliday
    • , Patrik Brundin
    • , Jens Volkmann
    • , Anette-Eleonore Schrag
    •  & Anthony E. Lang
  • PrimeView |

    Parkinson disease is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with dopamine depletion in the basal ganglia. This PrimeView focuses on the clinical course of Parkinson disease, in which non-motor symptoms, such as loss of smell and sleep disorders, can develop years before the onset of motor symptoms.

  • Primer |

    Alopecia areata is an autoimmune disorder characterized by transient hair loss. Severity can range from distinct patches to total hair loss. In this Primer, the authors describe the underlying pathophysiology of this complex polygenic disease, as well as the epidemiology, diagnosis and management.

    • C. Herbert Pratt
    • , Lloyd E. King Jr
    • , Andrew G. Messenger
    • , Angela M. Christiano
    •  & John P. Sundberg
  • PrimeView |

    Alopecia areata is an autoimmune disorder characterized by reversible hair loss without loss of the hair follicle. This PrimeView focuses on the clinical presentation, which can vary from patchy hair loss on the scalp to total loss of all body hair.

  • PrimeView |

    Renal cell carcinoma is a common cancer that is treated with surgery in localized cases and systemic targeted therapies in metastatic cases.

  • Primer |

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a neoplasm of the renal epithelium and accounts for >90% of kidney cancers. Cancer genomic studies have identified numerous molecular events that lead to RCC and marked intra-tumour heterogeneity, which have prognostic and therapeutic relevance. In this Primer, the authors describe these advances, as well as highlight the considerable advances in the systemic treatment of metastatic RCC.

    • James J. Hsieh
    • , Mark P. Purdue
    • , Sabina Signoretti
    • , Charles Swanton
    • , Laurence Albiges
    • , Manuela Schmidinger
    • , Daniel Y. Heng
    • , James Larkin
    •  & Vincenzo Ficarra
  • PrimeView |

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection can cause acute and chronic liver inflammation — hepatitis C — and can result in liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. This PrimeView focuses on the development of direct-acting antiviral agents, which have revolutionized the treatment of HCV infection.

  • Primer |

    Hepatitis C virus infection can cause acute and chronic hepatitis C, which are both characterized by inflammation of the liver. In this Primer, Manns et al. describe the latest developments against the global hepatitis C epidemic in the era of highly effective therapies.

    • Michael P. Manns
    • , Maria Buti
    • , Ed Gane
    • , Jean-Michel Pawlotsky
    • , Homie Razavi
    • , Norah Terrault
    •  & Zobair Younossi
  • Primer |

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 is caused by mutations in the NF1 tumour suppressor gene. This Primer by Gutmann and colleagues discusses the genetics underlying the development of this disease, and describes the diagnosis and treatment of the widespread clinical manifestations.

    • David H. Gutmann
    • , Rosalie E. Ferner
    • , Robert H. Listernick
    • , Bruce R. Korf
    • , Pamela L. Wolters
    •  & Kimberly J. Johnson
  • PrimeView |

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 is caused by mutations in the NF1 tumour suppressor gene. The clinical manifestations of neurofibromatosis type 1 are highlighted in this PrimeView and can include defects in the skin, nervous system and bone.

  • Primer |

    Neuropathic pain is caused by a lesion or disease of the somatosensory system (including peripheral and central neurons). Here, the authors present the current descriptions of the presentation, causes, diagnosis and treatment of neuropathic pain with a focus on peripheral neuropathic pain, which has a greater knowledge base than central neuropathic pain.

    • Luana Colloca
    • , Taylor Ludman
    • , Didier Bouhassira
    • , Ralf Baron
    • , Anthony H. Dickenson
    • , David Yarnitsky
    • , Roy Freeman
    • , Andrea Truini
    • , Nadine Attal
    • , Nanna B. Finnerup
    • , Christopher Eccleston
    • , Eija Kalso
    • , David L. Bennett
    • , Robert H. Dworkin
    •  & Srinivasa N. Raja
  • PrimeView |

    This PrimeView highlights how a diagnosis of neuropathic pain is reached, which is important to provide appropriate treatments.

  • Correction |

    • Thomas J. Kipps
    • , Freda K. Stevenson
    • , Catherine J. Wu
    • , Carlo M. Croce
    • , Graham Packham
    • , William G. Wierda
    • , Susan O'Brien
    • , John Gribben
    •  & Kanti Rai
  • Primer |

    Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder that is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness. This Primer by Kornum and colleagues primarily focuses on narcolepsy type 1 (also known as narcolepsy with cataplexy), which is believed to be caused by the autoimmune-mediated loss of hypocretin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus.

    • Birgitte R. Kornum
    • , Stine Knudsen
    • , Hanna M. Ollila
    • , Fabio Pizza
    • , Poul J. Jennum
    • , Yves Dauvilliers
    •  & Sebastiaan Overeem
  • PrimeView |

    This illustrated PrimeView accompanies the Primer on narcolepsy by Kornum and colleagues, and focuses on the diagnosis and clinical manifestations of narcolepsy type 1 (also referred to as narcolepsy with cataplexy).

  • Primer |

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by several motor tics and at least one phonic tic. In this Primer, Robertson et al. describe the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of GTS in detail.

    • Mary M. Robertson
    • , Valsamma Eapen
    • , Harvey S. Singer
    • , Davide Martino
    • , Jeremiah M. Scharf
    • , Peristera Paschou
    • , Veit Roessner
    • , Douglas W. Woods
    • , Marwan Hariz
    • , Carol A. Mathews
    • , Rudi Črnčec
    •  & James F. Leckman
  • PrimeView |

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by motor tics and at least one vocal tic. Tics have an onset in childhood and improve with increasing age. This PrimeView focuses on the clinical characteristics and the impact that GTS has on quality of life.

  • PrimeView |

    Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is a B cell malignancy. This PrimeView focuses on the mechanisms underlying the development of CLL, including genetic alterations, B cell receptor signalling and interactions within the tumour microenvironment.