Browse Articles

  • PrimeView |

    Oesophageal cancer comprises two biologically distinct entities: oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC). This PrimeView focuses on the pathophysiology of oesophageal cancer and highlights the differences in risk factors, development and disease progression between OSCC and OAC.

  • Primer |

    Oesophageal cancer is the sixth most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide and comprises two major subtypes — oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma and oesophageal adenocarcinoma — which are epidemiologically and biologically distinct. In this Primer, Cunningham and colleagues describe the epidemiology, pathophysiology and management of oesophageal cancer.

    • Elizabeth C. Smyth
    • , Jesper Lagergren
    • , Rebecca C. Fitzgerald
    • , Florian Lordick
    • , Manish A. Shah
    • , Pernilla Lagergren
    •  & David Cunningham
  • Primer |

    Multiple myeloma — a malignancy of terminally differentiated plasma cells — is the second most common haematological malignancy. This Primer by Kumar et al. highlights the mechanisms and epidemiology of multiple myeloma, and describes how updates to the diagnostic criteria have impacted patient management.

    • Shaji K. Kumar
    • , Vincent Rajkumar
    • , Robert A. Kyle
    • , Mark van Duin
    • , Pieter Sonneveld
    • , María-Victoria Mateos
    • , Francesca Gay
    •  & Kenneth C. Anderson
  • Correction |

    • Ralph Green
    • , Lindsay H. Allen
    • , Anne-Lise Bjørke-Monsen
    • , Alex Brito
    • , Jean-Louis Guéant
    • , Joshua W. Miller
    • , Anne M. Molloy
    • , Ebba Nexo
    • , Sally Stabler
    • , Ban-Hock Toh
    • , Per Magne Ueland
    •  & Chittaranjan Yajnik
  • PrimeView |

    The diagnosis of multiple myeloma, which includes bone marrow biopsy, clinical examination and radiographic imaging, is the main focus of this illustrated PrimeView, which accompanies the Primer on multiple myeloma by Kumar et al.

  • Primer |

    Tumour-induced osteomalacia (TIO), also known as oncogenic osteomalacia, is a rare paraneoplastic disorder caused by tumours that secrete fibroblast growth factor 23. Clinically, TIO is associated with hypophosphataemia and skeletal abnormalities. This Primer focuses on the epidemiological, pathophysiological, diagnostic and clinical aspects of TIO.

    • Salvatore Minisola
    • , Munro Peacock
    • , Seijii Fukumoto
    • , Cristiana Cipriani
    • , Jessica Pepe
    • , Sri Harsha Tella
    •  & Michael T. Collins
  • PrimeView |

    Tumour-induced osteomalacia (TIO) — caused by tumours that secrete fibroblast growth factor 23 — is characterized by hypophosphataemia and skeletal abnormalities. Tumours causing TIO are difficult to locate, as they are often small and can occur in soft tissue or bone anywhere in the body.

  • Primer |

    Urinary incontinence symptoms in women are prevalent and substantially affect health-related quality of life. These issues are compounded by the limited attention that urinary incontinence receives at the policy or research-funding levels. Despite these challenges, the field has witnessed considerable innovations in practice over the past decade, which are summarized in this Primer.

    • Yoshitaka Aoki
    • , Heidi W. Brown
    • , Linda Brubaker
    • , Jean Nicolas Cornu
    • , J. Oliver Daly
    •  & Rufus Cartwright
  • PrimeView |

    Urinary incontinence in women typically begins during pregnancy, after childbirth or at the time of menopause; symptoms can worsen or improve over time. This PrimeView focuses on some of the mechanisms underlying the condition, as well as how patients can be diagnosed and treated.

  • Primer |

    Vitamin B12 (also known as cobalamin) is a B vitamin that has an important role in cellular metabolism, especially in DNA synthesis, methylation and mitochondrial metabolism. In this Primer, Green et al. describe the causes, consequences and management of vitamin B12 deficiency.

    • Ralph Green
    • , Lindsay H. Allen
    • , Anne-Lise Bjørke-Monsen
    • , Alex Brito
    • , Jean-Louis Guéant
    • , Joshua W. Miller
    • , Anne M. Molloy
    • , Ebba Nexo
    • , Sally Stabler
    • , Ban-Hock Toh
    • , Per Magne Ueland
    •  & Chittaranjan Yajnik
  • PrimeView |

    Vitamin B12 deficiency is associated with various symptoms, of which the haematological and neurological manifestations are the most prominent. This PrimeView focuses on the causes of vitamin B12 deficiency, including inadequate intake, malabsorption, or defects in transport or intracellular metabolism.

  • Primer |

    Periodontal diseases are characterized by inflammation and loss of the tissues supporting the teeth, which could lead to eating and speaking problems. Although some risk factors are non-modifiable (for example, genetic susceptibility), others, such as smoking, can be effectively managed.

    • Denis F. Kinane
    • , Panagiota G. Stathopoulou
    •  & Panos N. Papapanou
  • PrimeView |

    An imbalance in the oral microbiota can trigger periodontal diseases. However, numerous risk factors can have a substantial role in the progression of these inflammatory conditions, as highlighted in this PrimeView.

  • PrimeView |

    More than 2.1 billion adults are estimated to be overweight or obese worldwide. This PrimeView focuses on factors that increase the risk of becoming overweight or obese, including a reduction in energy expenditure, excess energy intake, genetics, and social and cultural factors.

  • Primer |

    Obesity is considered to be an epidemic of the 21st century; >2 billion individuals are considered to be overweight or obese globally. In this Primer, Martinez and colleagues discuss obesity and its association with pathophysiological abnormalities that increase health risk, such as features of the metabolic syndrome.

    • Pedro González-Muniesa
    • , Miguel-Angel Mártinez-González
    • , Frank B. Hu
    • , Jean-Pierre Després
    • , Yuji Matsuzawa
    • , Ruth J. F. Loos
    • , Luis A. Moreno
    • , George A. Bray
    •  & J. Alfredo Martinez
  • Primer |

    Granulopoiesis arrest in the bone marrow at the promyelocyte level is the hallmark of severe congenital neutropenias. Patients have an increased risk of infections and leukaemic progression; granulocyte colony-stimulating factor therapy can restore neutrophil counts in most cases.

    • Julia Skokowa
    • , David C. Dale
    • , Ivo P. Touw
    • , Cornelia Zeidler
    •  & Karl Welte
  • PrimeView |

    This illustrated PrimeView focuses on the mechanisms underlying the incomplete maturation of neutrophil precursors in the bone marrow (granulopoiesis arrest), which is the common denominator of severe congenital neutropenias, a group of inherited haematological disorders.

  • Primer |

    In recent years, the molecular characterization of gastric adenocarcinoma — the most common stomach cancer — has identified numerous targets for potential exploitation into therapy. However, advances are still lagging compared with other cancers of similar incidence. In this Primer, Ajani et al. describe these advances and the work still needed to be done.

    • Jaffer A. Ajani
    • , Jeeyun Lee
    • , Takeshi Sano
    • , Yelena Y. Janjigian
    • , Daiming Fan
    •  & Shumei Song
  • PrimeView |

    Gastric adenocarcinoma is the most common stomach cancer. Its development is associated with several risk factors, including genetic susceptibility, exposure to certain strains of Helicobacter pylori, hygiene standard, food preparation and preservation, smoking and diet.

  • PrimeView |

    Dental caries formation can affect individuals at any age and involves the interaction between the tooth, the microbial biofilm at the tooth surface and dietary sugars. This PrimeView, which accompanies the Primer by Pitts et al., focuses on the pathophysiology of dental caries formation.

  • Primer |

    The formation of dental caries involves the interaction between the tooth, the microbial biofilm at the tooth surface and dietary sugars. This Primer by Pitts et al. aims to provide a global overview of caries, focusing on current, patient-centred, tooth-preserving preventive care.

    • Nigel B. Pitts
    • , Domenick T. Zero
    • , Phil D. Marsh
    • , Kim Ekstrand
    • , Jane A. Weintraub
    • , Francisco Ramos-Gomez
    • , Junji Tagami
    • , Svante Twetman
    • , Georgios Tsakos
    •  & Amid Ismail
  • Primer |

    Anaemia, thrombosis and smooth muscle dystonias are manifestations of paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria, a rare but potentially life-threatening haematological disorder. Inhibition of complement activation is the treatment of choice; stem cell transplantation is recommended for patients who also develop severe bone marrow failure.

    • Anita Hill
    • , Amy E. DeZern
    • , Taroh Kinoshita
    •  & Robert A. Brodsky
  • PrimeView |

    Somatic PIGA mutations in haematopoietic stem cells generate erythrocytes that are deficient in glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins. These erythrocytes are susceptible to haemolysis by complement activation, which manifests as paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria. This PrimeView illustrates the complex pathological mechanisms.

  • Primer |

    Pemphigus is an autoimmune disorder characterized by blisters in the oral mucosa and epidermis. Acantholysis (loss of cell adhesion, which results in blisters) is caused by the presence of autoantibodies that target desmosomal proteins, in particular, desmoglein 1 and desmoglein 3.

    • Michael Kasperkiewicz
    • , Christoph T. Ellebrecht
    • , Hayato Takahashi
    • , Jun Yamagami
    • , Detlef Zillikens
    • , Aimee S. Payne
    •  & Masayuki Amagai
  • PrimeView |

    The availability of animal models of pemphigus has enabled researchers to understand the pathological mechanisms of this autoimmune disease. This PrimeView illustrates how autoantibodies against proteins that are involved in cell adhesion can lead to the formation of blisters and erosions, the hallmark lesions of pemphigus.