About the authors

Kathryn A. Phillips

Kathryn A. Phillips, Ph.D., is a Professor of Health Economics and Health Services Research in the Department of Clinical Pharmacy and the Institute for Health Policy Studies at the University of California, San Francisco. She holds degrees from the University of California-Berkeley, Harvard University and the University of Texas at Austin, and previously worked for the federal government in Texas and Washington DC.

Phillips's research focuses on the application of quantitative tools to policy issues. Her activities in the areas of genomic medicine and pharmacogenomics focus particularly on examining their utilization, cost-effectiveness and regulation. She serves as an advisor to the FDA on the regulation of pharmacogenomics, as well as a consultant to biotech companies on the economics of pharmacogenomics. She has been awarded several National Institutes of Health (NIH) R01 grants, including a 5-year NIH career development award. Phillips has published more than 60 peer-reviewed articles in policy and clinical journals and served on several national and international panels, including a 4-year term on the NIH Health Services Organization and Delivery Study Section. She serves on the editorial boards of the American Journal of Preventive Medicine and Medical Care Research and Review and is a reviewer for more than 30 journals.

Stephanie Van Bebber

Stephanie Van Bebber, M.Sc., holds a Master of Science in Health Administration from the University of Toronto, Canada. She has been working as an Analyst at the University of California, San Francisco, since 2002 in the Department of Clinical Pharmacy. Van Bebber's recent research emphasis has been on economic and policy evaluation of pharmacogenomics and related uses of genetic information. Additional research interests and areas include the evaluation of preventive health services, preferences evaluation and the application of patient preferences in practice, and economic and policy evaluation of women's reproductive health care.

Amalia M. Issa

Amalia M. Issa, M.P.H., Ph.D., is Associate Professor at the University of Houston and Director of the Program in Personalized Medicine and Targeted Therapeutics (P2, MT2, ) at the Abramson Center for the Future of Health at the University of Houston and The Methodist Hospital, Texas, USA. The mission of the P2, MT2is to advance knowledge of, and promote informed decision-making about, the effectiveness of pharmaceutical products, services and policies, with a particular focus on personalized medicine technologies. The programme accomplishes its mission through state-of-the-art research, training programmes, consultation to government agencies on public policy initiatives, and national and international collaborations. Issa received her doctorate from the Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery (with a specialization in neuropharmacology) at McGill University in Montreal, Canada, and her public health degree from the University of California Los Aangeles School of Public Health, USA. She completed fellowships in Toronto, Canada, at Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts, USA, and the Massachusetts General Hospital. She has an international reputation in public health and health policy pharmacogenomics research and a history of extramural funding support in both Canada and the United States. Issa conducts research on the implications of genetics and individualizing drug therapies for clinical practice, research and health policy; pharmaceutical innovation, regulation and technology assessment; the impact of personalized medicine on healthcare and the pharmaceutical industry; the incorporation of genetic analysis on clinical trials methodology; the integration of diagnostics with therapy; the use of decision sciences and new mathematical modelling techniques to better analyse uncertainty in the pharmaceutical sciences; and the pharmaco-epidemiological analysis of adverse drug reactions and safety.