Browse Articles

  • Review |

    Cholangiocarcinoma, the second most common form of liver cancer after hepatocellular carcinoma, is a heterogeneous disease entity with a near-universal poor prognosis. Our understanding of the epidemiology and biology of cholangiocarcinoma is increasing, and importantly, potentially actionable molecular and immunological targets for novel therapies are increasingly being identified. Herein, the evolving developments in the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and management of cholangiocarcinoma are reviewed.

    • Sumera Rizvi
    • , Shahid A. Khan
    • , Christopher L. Hallemeier
    • , Robin K. Kelley
    •  & Gregory J. Gores
  • Review |

    Radiomics is the high-throughput mining of quantitative image features from standard-of-care medical imaging to enable data to be extracted and applied within clinical-decision support systems. The process of radiomics is described and its pitfalls, challenges, opportunities, and capacity to improve clinical decision making. The radiomics field requires standardized evaluation of scientific findings and their clinical relevance. This review provides guidance for investigations to meet this urgent need in the field of radiomics.

    • Philippe Lambin
    • , Ralph T.H. Leijenaar
    • , Timo M. Deist
    • , Jurgen Peerlings
    • , Evelyn E.C. de Jong
    • , Janita van Timmeren
    • , Sebastian Sanduleanu
    • , Ruben T.H.M. Larue
    • , Aniek J.G. Even
    • , Arthur Jochems
    • , Yvonka van Wijk
    • , Henry Woodruff
    • , Johan van Soest
    • , Tim Lustberg
    • , Erik Roelofs
    • , Wouter van Elmpt
    • , Andre Dekker
    • , Felix M. Mottaghy
    • , Joachim E. Wildberger
    •  & Sean Walsh
  • Review |

    In the past decade, the importance of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) as a key measure of the quality of care delivered to patients with cancer has been acknowledged. PROs were used in the context of research studies, but growing evidence indicates that the incorporation of electronic PRO (ePRO) assessments into standard health-care settings can improve the quality of care delivered to patients with cancer. The authors of this Review discuss aspects related to PROs such as measurements, implementation challenges, and outcome improvements associated with their use.

    • Thomas W. LeBlanc
    •  & Amy P. Abernethy
  • News and Views |

    On 30th August 2017, tisagenlecleucel became the first chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T-cell therapy to be approved by the FDA. This approval has important implications for health-care systems because the use of this promising treatment presents considerable logistical, toxicological, and financial challenges. Moreover, the high price tag of US$475,000 is questionable, considering the major role of US taxpayers in covering the development, delivery, and supportive-care costs of this treatment.

    • Vinay Prasad
  • Review |

    TP53, encoding the tumour-suppressor p53, is the most frequently mutated gene across all human cancers. Similar to other transcription factors, p53 has proved notoriously difficult to target therapeutically; to date, no p53-targeted therapies have entered the clinic. The diversity of TP53 mutations, which can be categorized across a spectrum of different functional classes, is increasingly recognized as an additional challenge to developing p53-directed treatments. Herein, Kanaga Sabapathy and David Lane review this 'rainbow of p53 mutants', and discuss the implications for anticancer therapies targeting p53 or directed by TP53 status.

    • Kanaga Sabapathy
    •  & David P. Lane
  • Research Highlight |

    • Diana Romero
  • Review |

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T-cell therapies are showing great promise in the treatment of cancer, particularly B-cell malignancies, but are associated with characteristic, potentially fatal toxicities, principally cytokine-release syndrome, CAR-T-cell-related encephalopathy syndrome, and haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis/macrophage-activation syndrome. Herein, the CAR-T-cell-therapy-associated TOXicity (CARTOX) Working Group, comprising multidisciplinary investigators from various institutions with clinical experience in the use of a range of CAR-T-cell platforms, review these acute toxicities and provide monitoring, grading, and management recommendations.

    • Sattva S. Neelapu
    • , Sudhakar Tummala
    • , Partow Kebriaei
    • , William Wierda
    • , Cristina Gutierrez
    • , Frederick L. Locke
    • , Krishna V. Komanduri
    • , Yi Lin
    • , Nitin Jain
    • , Naval Daver
    • , Jason Westin
    • , Alison M. Gulbis
    • , Monica E. Loghin
    • , John F. de Groot
    • , Sherry Adkins
    • , Suzanne E. Davis
    • , Katayoun Rezvani
    • , Patrick Hwu
    •  & Elizabeth J. Shpall
  • News and Views |

    The development of therapeutic cancer vaccines has been pursued for many decades. Many vaccines can elicit immunity to tumour antigens, although their clinical efficacy remains modest. Recent results from two clinical trials highlight the potential of personalized vaccination strategies, made possible by high-throughput approaches to the identification of immunogenic tumour neoantigens. Thus, therapeutic cancer vaccines might soon move into the mainstream.

    • Jacques Banchereau
    •  & Karolina Palucka
  • Comment |

    Women's health is more than reproductive health. Why does this phrase still need to be repeated? This commentary highlights the urgent need to encourage more women to lead, research, and educate to move beyond stereotypes and to ensure we push forward in improving the lives of women everywhere.

    • Ophira Ginsburg
  • Review |

    Cell-based immunotherapies are showing great promise in the treatment of even the most treatment-refractory of haematological malignancies. Herein, Jennifer Brudno and James Kochenderfer review the results obtained to date with CAR-T-cell therapies for lymphoma. They also discuss what has been learned regarding the limitations of CAR-T-cell therapies and areas for improvement relating to toxicity management, the design of CAR-T-cell products, conditioning regimens, and combination therapies.

    • Jennifer N. Brudno
    •  & James N. Kochenderfer