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  • Review |

    The receptor-tyrosine kinase RET has been identified as a potentially actionable driver of oncogenesis. Several multikinase inhibitors with activity against RET have been explored in the clinic, but have only modest efficacy in patients with thyroid cancers, mostly in those with RET mutations, or RET-rearranged lung cancers. Herein, the authors outline the aberrations in RET that contribute to tumorigenesis, review the current clinical data for inhibitors of this kinase, and discuss whether the limited clinical success achieved with these agents to date is attributable to the intractability of RET as a drug target or the lack of highly specific RET inhibitors.

    • Alexander Drilon
    • , Zishuo I. Hu
    • , Gillianne G. Y. Lai
    •  & Daniel S. W. Tan
  • Review |

    The onset of acquired resistance to treatment is virtually inevitable in patients with solid tumours. In this Review, the authors describe the role of tumour heterogeneity in the development of acquired resistance, potential treatment strategies that take into account the heterogeneity of patient's tumours, and how a better understanding of tumour heterogeneity might improve the outcomes of patients.

    • Ibiayi Dagogo-Jack
    •  & Alice T. Shaw
  • Review |

    Clinical trials are an essential aspect of drug development; however, in patients with non-castrate prostate cancer, the long natural history of the disease provides a major barrier to the introduction of new therapies. In this Review, the authors describe the potential of a novel, multi-arm, multistage, clinical trial project, with surrogate end points designed to fully reflect the effects of treatments, in transforming the treatment of patients with early stage prostate cancer, before the development of castration-resistant disease.

    • Min Yuen Teo
    • , Matthew J. O'Shaughnessy
    • , Sean M. McBride
    • , Herbert A. Vargas
    •  & Howard I. Scher
  • Review |

    Cholangiocarcinoma, the second most common form of liver cancer after hepatocellular carcinoma, is a heterogeneous disease entity with a near-universal poor prognosis. Our understanding of the epidemiology and biology of cholangiocarcinoma is increasing, and importantly, potentially actionable molecular and immunological targets for novel therapies are increasingly being identified. Herein, the evolving developments in the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and management of cholangiocarcinoma are reviewed.

    • Sumera Rizvi
    • , Shahid A. Khan
    • , Christopher L. Hallemeier
    • , Robin K. Kelley
    •  & Gregory J. Gores
  • Review |

    Radiomics is the high-throughput mining of quantitative image features from standard-of-care medical imaging to enable data to be extracted and applied within clinical-decision support systems. The process of radiomics is described and its pitfalls, challenges, opportunities, and capacity to improve clinical decision making. The radiomics field requires standardized evaluation of scientific findings and their clinical relevance. This review provides guidance for investigations to meet this urgent need in the field of radiomics.

    • Philippe Lambin
    • , Ralph T.H. Leijenaar
    • , Timo M. Deist
    • , Jurgen Peerlings
    • , Evelyn E.C. de Jong
    • , Janita van Timmeren
    • , Sebastian Sanduleanu
    • , Ruben T.H.M. Larue
    • , Aniek J.G. Even
    • , Arthur Jochems
    • , Yvonka van Wijk
    • , Henry Woodruff
    • , Johan van Soest
    • , Tim Lustberg
    • , Erik Roelofs
    • , Wouter van Elmpt
    • , Andre Dekker
    • , Felix M. Mottaghy
    • , Joachim E. Wildberger
    •  & Sean Walsh
  • Review |

    In the past decade, the importance of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) as a key measure of the quality of care delivered to patients with cancer has been acknowledged. PROs were used in the context of research studies, but growing evidence indicates that the incorporation of electronic PRO (ePRO) assessments into standard health-care settings can improve the quality of care delivered to patients with cancer. The authors of this Review discuss aspects related to PROs such as measurements, implementation challenges, and outcome improvements associated with their use.

    • Thomas W. LeBlanc
    •  & Amy P. Abernethy

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