Table of contents

Research Highlights

Heart failure: New centrifugal-flow pump for advanced heart failure | PDF (154 KB)

p1 | doi:10.1038/nrcardio.2016.199

Coronary artery disease: Nature versus nurture in coronary atherosclerosis | PDF (184 KB)

p2 | doi:10.1038/nrcardio.2016.191

Heart failure: Neprilysin inhibition attenuates risk of hyperkalaemia in HFrEF | PDF (1,026 KB)

p2 | doi:10.1038/nrcardio.2016.196

Coronary artery disease: CABG surgery or PCI for left main CAD? | PDF (155 KB)

p3 | doi:10.1038/nrcardio.2016.189

Surgery: Single vs bilateral artery grafts | PDF (83 KB)

p4 | doi:10.1038/nrcardio.2016.193

Vascular disease: Ticagrelor not superior to clopidogrel for PAD | PDF (166 KB)

p4 | doi:10.1038/nrcardio.2016.198

Atrial fibrillation: A safe alternative to warfarin plus DAPT after PCI? | PDF (186 KB)

p4 | doi:10.1038/nrcardio.2016.201

Interventional cardiology: Absorbing results with degradable stents | PDF (170 KB)

p5 | doi:10.1038/nrcardio.2016.184

Surgery: Use of tranexamic acid in coronary surgery | PDF (82 KB)

p6 | doi:10.1038/nrcardio.2016.182

Dyslipidaemia: Apo-AI infusion after acute MI | PDF (89 KB)

p6 | doi:10.1038/nrcardio.2016.192

Heart failure: Interarterial shunt device for HFpEF | PDF (89 KB)

p6 | doi:10.1038/nrcardio.2016.194

In brief

Risk factors: HDL-C levels not specific to cardiovascular mortality | PDF (91 KB)

p2 | doi:10.1038/nrcardio.2016.186

Dyslipidaemia: Optimizing child–parent screening for FH | PDF (91 KB)

p2 | doi:10.1038/nrcardio.2016.187

Imaging: New OCT-based strategy to guide PCI | PDF (91 KB)

p2 | doi:10.1038/nrcardio.2016.188

Cardiac resuscitation: Real-world evidence for public-access defibrillation | PDF (91 KB)

p2 | doi:10.1038/nrcardio.2016.190


News and Views

Basic research: Suffocating the heart to stimulate regeneration

Niranjana Natarajan & Richard T. Lee

p7 | doi:10.1038/nrcardio.2016.197

Ischaemic cardiomyopathy leads to destruction of cardiomyocytes beyond the regenerative potential of the adult human heart. The murine heart can regenerate in utero and shortly after birth, but oxidative stress eventually arrests cardiomyocyte division. Chronic hypoxia in mice has now been shown to induce the cell cycle in cardiomyocytes, resulting in cardiac regeneration.

Basic research: Killing the old: cell senescence in atherosclerosis

Martin R. Bennett & Murray C. H. Clarke

p8 | doi:10.1038/nrcardio.2016.195

Atherosclerosis is a disease of ageing, and the most common cause of death in the industrialized world. Cell senescence and the therapeutic removal of senescent cells using 'senolytics' are topical areas of science and translational medicine. A new study reports surprising findings on cell senescence and atherosclerosis with important therapeutic implications.



Genome editing in cardiovascular diseases

Alanna Strong & Kiran Musunuru

p11 | doi:10.1038/nrcardio.2016.139

Genome editing is being rapidly adopted into all fields of biomedical research, including the cardiovascular field. In this Review, Strong and Musunuru discuss the applications of genome-editing technology, including zinc finger nucleases, TALENs, and CRISPR/Cas9 systems, throughout cardiovascular disease research, their current limitations, and the prospect of in vivo genome-editing therapies in the future.

Temporal shifts in clinical presentation and underlying mechanisms of atherosclerotic disease

Gerard Pasterkamp, Hester M. den Ruijter & Peter Libby

p21 | doi:10.1038/nrcardio.2016.166

Unstable plaques have been used as a target for imaging and drug discovery, and as a model of atherosclerosis in preclinical experiments. In this Review, Pasterkamp and colleagues describe the temporal shift in the characteristics of plaques in patients with acute coronary syndrome, and argue that the 'vulnerable plaque' concept might no longer be relevant to current practice.

Neurohormonal activation in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction

Justin Hartupee & Douglas L. Mann

p30 | doi:10.1038/nrcardio.2016.163

Chronic activation of neurohormonal systems, such as the sympathetic nervous system and the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system can lead to deleterious effects on the heart. In this Review, Hartupee and Mann describe the effects of neurohormonal activation in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, and the implications for disease progression.

Thyroid hormones and cardiovascular disease

Avais Jabbar, Alessandro Pingitore, Simon H. S. Pearce, Azfar Zaman, Giorgio Iervasi & Salman Razvi

p39 | doi:10.1038/nrcardio.2016.174

Thyroid hormones have an important role in maintaining cardiovascular homeostasis, and subtle changes in thyroid hormone concentrations adversely influence the cardiovascular system. In this Review, Jabbar et al. discuss the role of thyroid hormones in the pathogenesis and management of cardiovascular diseases such as heart failure and acute myocardial infarction, and outline the utility of therapy with thyroid hormones for the management of these conditions.




The fractal heart — embracing mathematics in the cardiology clinic

Gabriella Captur, Audrey L. Karperien, Alun D. Hughes, Darrel P. Francis & James C. Moon

p56 | doi:10.1038/nrcardio.2016.161

In this Perspectives article, Captur et al. explain the fundamental principles of fractal geometry, and summarize cardiovascular studies in which fractal methods have been used to investigate disease mechanisms. The authors propose that clinical researchers can deploy innovative fractal solutions to common cardiac problems, which might ultimately translate into advancements in patient care.