FIGURE 3 | Prostate cancer cell and osteoblast interaction.

From the following article:

Osteoblasts in prostate cancer metastasis to bone

Christopher J. Logothetis & Sue-Hwa Lin

Nature Reviews Cancer 5, 21-28 (January 2005)

doi:10.1038/nrc1528

Osteoblasts in prostate cancer metastasis to bone

Prostate cancer (PCa) cells influence bone homeostasis by secreting paracrine factors that regulate osteoblast proliferation or differentiation. These factors include bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta), insulin-like growth factor (IGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), endothelin-1 (ET1), the bone metastasis factor MDA-BF-1, urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA). These factors have been shown to support osteoblast proliferation by exerting direct effects on osteoblasts (BMP, TGFbeta, IGF, PDGF, VEGF, ET1, MDA-BF-1) or influence osteoblast proliferation by modifying growth factors present in the bone microenvironment (uPA and PSA). In addition, these growth factors modulate osteoblast function to promote deposition of new bone matrix. The newly formed bone has features of immature bone (woven bone) with collagen fibres arranged in irregular random arrays. Woven bone is eventually converted into lamellar bone, which is mature bone with collagen fibres arranged in lamellae. Osteoblasts also produce factors that stimulate proliferation of prostate cancer cells (green circles); these bone-derived factors have not yet been identified.

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