FIGURE 1 | Bone remodelling.

From the following article:

Cancer to bone: a fatal attraction

Katherine N. Weilbaecher, Theresa A. Guise & Laurie K. McCauley

Nature Reviews Cancer 11, 411-425 (June 2011)


Cancer to bone: a fatal attraction

The bone is a dynamic hard tissue that undergoes a continuous remodelling process to maintain skeletal strength and integrity, with 10% of the skeleton being replaced annually. In a finely balanced, coupled and sequential process (indicated by the dashed arrows), haematopoietic stem cell (HSC)-derived osteoclasts resorb bone (releasing growth factors and calcium) and mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived osteoblasts replace the voids with new bone, a process that is dependent on osteoblast commitment, proliferation and differentiation coupled with osteoblast production of type I collagen and its subsequent mineralization to form the calcified matrix of bone.Osteocytes, which are terminally differentiated osteoblasts that are embedded in bone, sense mechanical strain, signal to osteoclasts and osteoblasts, and participate in the remodelling process206. Bone lining cells are osteoblastic in origin and have been proposed to form both a canopy over remodelling sites and a layer over bone surfaces, as well as a conduit to communicate with osteocytes207. The endosteum and periosteum (the lining on the inner and outer bone surfaces) contain a population of tissue macrophages, termed osteomacs, which are likely to have important roles in bone remodelling208. M-CSF, macrophage colony stimulating factor; RANK, receptor activator of NF-κB; RANKL, RANK ligand.

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