FIGURE 1 | COX enzymes in prostaglandin synthesis.

From the following article:

Colorectal cancer prevention and treatment by inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2

Rajnish A. Gupta & Raymond N. DuBois

Nature Reviews Cancer 1, 11-21 (October 2001)

doi:10.1038/35094017

Colorectal cancer prevention and treatment by inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2

Arachadonic acid is first liberated from membrane glycerophospholipids by the actions of the phospholipase A2 (PLA2) family of enzymes. The cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes then catalyse the biosynthesis of the bicyclic endoperoxide intermediate PGG2, followed by reduction to PGH2. PGH2 is subsequently converted to one of several structurally related prostaglandins (PGs), including PGE2, PGD2, PGF2alpha, PGI2 and thromboxane A2 (TxA2), by the activity of specific PG synthases. Traditional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) inhibit the activity of both COX-1 and COX-2, whereas the recently developed coxib family of NSAIDs selectively inhibit COX-2. COX-1 is responsible for 'housekeeping' PG biosynthesis and is constitutively produced in most tissues in the body. COX-2, on the other hand, is not normally produced in most tissues but is induced by a wide spectrum of growth factors and pro-inflammatory cytokines in specific pathophysiological conditions.

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