Nature Reviews Cancer 1, 34-45 (October 2001) | doi:10.1038/35094009

The development of androgen-independent prostate cancer

Brian J. Feldman1 & David Feldman1  About the authors


The normal prostate and early-stage prostate cancers depend on androgens for growth and survival, and androgen ablation therapy causes them to regress. Cancers that are not cured by surgery eventually become androgen independent, rendering anti-androgen therapy ineffective. But how does androgen independence arise? We predict that understanding the pathways that lead to the development of androgen-independent prostate cancer will pave the way to effective therapies for these, at present, untreatable cancers.

Author affiliations

  1. Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305-5103, USA. Email:

Correspondence to: David Feldman1 Email: