Neuropsychopharmacology

TABLE 3

FROM:

Long-Term Effects of Nucleus Accumbens Deep Brain Stimulation in Treatment-Resistant Depression: Evidence for Sustained Efficacy

Bettina H Bewernick, Sarah Kayser, Volker Sturm and Thomas E Schlaepfer

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Table 3. Neuropsychological Assessment of Cognitive Changes at Baseline and at Last Observation

Cognitive domain/testMeanNSDPaired samples t-testT-valuedfp-Value
    Mean changeSD change   
Verbal learning and memory
VLMT total learning
Baseline40.31012.28−1.2015.67−0.249.000.81
Last observation41.501014.88     
VLMT delayed recall
Baseline7.40102.76−0.404.17−0.309.000.77
Last observation7.80103.43     
VLMT recognition
Baseline12.10102.13−0.501.96−0.819.000.44
Last observation12.60102.17     
         
General cognitive functions
MMSE
Baseline28.73111.680.092.020.1510.000.88
Last observation28.64111.43     
         
Language
HAWIE lexis test
Baseline18.7894.32−0.113.10−0.118.000.92
Last observation18.8993.55     
HAWIE finding similarities
Baseline22.6795.00−1.223.19−1.158.000.28
Last observation23.8994.04     
         
Working memory
Wechsler digit span
Baseline13.09112.95−0.182.79−0.2210.000.83
Last observation13.27114.76     
Wechsler visual memory span
Baseline13.45113.501.183.251.2110.000.26
Last observation12.27115.62     
         
Executive function
TMT A (s)
Baseline52.731129.12−3.9114.23−0.9110.000.38
Last observation56.641132.87     
TMT B (s)
Baseline134.641187.49−30.8249.90−2.0510.000.07
Last observation165.4511113.31     
STROOP interference (s)
Baseline302.57770.23−7.4329.07−0.686.000.52
Last observation310.00776.16     
Five-point test
Baseline20.201010.84−5.805.45−3.369.000.01
Last observation26.001010.75     
         
Visual spatial learning and memory
RVDLT total learning
Baseline27.20109.05−5.5010.50−1.669.000.13
Last observation32.701014.62     
RVDLT delayed recall
Baseline6.10102.92−0.502.22−0.719.000.50
Last observation6.60103.34     
RVDLT recognition
Baseline24.8992.031.002.921.038.000.33
Last observation23.8994.01     
         
Visual perception
VOT
Baseline18.0084.99−1.752.62−1.897.000.10
Last observation19.7585.00     
         
Attention
D2 total minus errors
Baseline280.449124.47−5.4451.57−0.328.000.76
Last observation285.89997.84     

 Abbreviations: HAWIE, Hamburg Wechsler Intelligence Test for adults; MMSE, Mini-Mental Status Examination; RVDLT, Rey Visual Design Learning Test; TMT, Trail Making Test; VLMT, Verbal Learning and Memory Test; VOT, Hooper Visual Organization Test.

 Mean, number of patients in analysis, SD, two-tailed paired t-tests with scores at baseline and at last observation (24 to 36 months) within each test as dependent variable. Percentile rank (PR) at baseline and last follow-up comparing our data with published normative data.

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