Latest Research

  • Article |

    The shape of plant organs shows low variability. Sepals of the same age look the same. Here the authors identify one transcription factor (DRMY1) crucial for sepal size reproducibility, and its effect on initiation timing and growth of the organ.

    • Mingyuan Zhu
    • , Weiwei Chen
    • , Vincent Mirabet
    • , Lilan Hong
    • , Simone Bovio
    • , Soeren Strauss
    • , Erich M. Schwarz
    • , Satoru Tsugawa
    • , Zhou Wang
    • , Richard S. Smith
    • , Chun-Biu Li
    • , Olivier Hamant
    • , Arezki Boudaoud
    •  & Adrienne H. K. Roeder
  • Letter |

    The parasitic plant Striga hermonthica germinates when it senses strigolactones (SLs). By expressing Striga SL receptors in Arabidopsis, the authors show that the SL pathway can regulate germination independently of gibberellin signalling.

    • Michael Bunsick
    • , Shigeo Toh
    • , Cynthia Wong
    • , Zhenhua Xu
    • , George Ly
    • , Christopher S. P. McErlean
    • , Gianni Pescetto
    • , Kawther Elfituri Nemrish
    • , Priscilla Sung
    • , Jack Daiyang Li
    • , Julie D. Scholes
    •  & Shelley Lumba
  • Letter |

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)–CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) technology was used to induce heritable reciprocal chromosomal translocations in the Mb range in Arabidopsis, providing new possibilities to modify chromosomes and break linkage drag in plant breeding.

    • Natalja Beying
    • , Carla Schmidt
    • , Michael Pacher
    • , Andreas Houben
    •  & Holger Puchta
  • Article |

    The authors investigate the mechanisms behind floral arrest in Arabidopsis. Despite what was previously believed, they show that it is not a global process but a locally regulated mechanism, driven by the export of auxin from fertile fruits.

    • Alexander Ware
    • , Catriona H. Walker
    • , Jan Šimura
    • , Pablo González-Suárez
    • , Karin Ljung
    • , Anthony Bishopp
    • , Zoe A. Wilson
    •  & Tom Bennett
  • Article |

    RuBisCO is believed to be the most abundant enzyme on earth, and catalyses a critical step in carbon fixation. Assisted by different assembly factors, including Raf1, RuBisCO assembles into the holoenzyme comprising eight large subunits (RbcL) and eight small subunits (RbcS). Here, the researchers resolve high-resolution protein structures of the cyanobacterial RuBisCO octameric complex that reflect different steps of its assembly.

    • Ling-Yun Xia
    • , Yong-Liang Jiang
    • , Wen-Wen Kong
    • , Hui Sun
    • , Wei-Fang Li
    • , Yuxing Chen
    •  & Cong-Zhao Zhou
  • Letter |

    The minimal regulatory logic and the evolutionary history of the auxin signalling pathway are explored by studying the much simpler auxin network in Marchantia with a combination of genetic, domain shuffling and biochemical strategies.

    • Hirotaka Kato
    • , Sumanth K. Mutte
    • , Hidemasa Suzuki
    • , Isidro Crespo
    • , Shubhajit Das
    • , Tatyana Radoeva
    • , Mattia Fontana
    • , Yoshihiro Yoshitake
    • , Emi Hainiwa
    • , Willy van den Berg
    • , Simon Lindhoud
    • , Kimitsune Ishizaki
    • , Johannes Hohlbein
    • , Jan Willem Borst
    • , D. Roeland Boer
    • , Ryuichi Nishihama
    • , Takayuki Kohchi
    •  & Dolf Weijers
  • Article |

    A reconstruction of the genomic history of japonica and indica rice over 9,000 yr with geographic, environmental, archaeobotanical and paleoclimate data.

    • Rafal M. Gutaker
    • , Simon C. Groen
    • , Emily S. Bellis
    • , Jae Y. Choi
    • , Inês S. Pires
    • , R. Kyle Bocinsky
    • , Emma R. Slayton
    • , Olivia Wilkins
    • , Cristina C. Castillo
    • , Sónia Negrão
    • , M. Margarida Oliveira
    • , Dorian Q. Fuller
    • , Jade A. d’Alpoim Guedes
    • , Jesse R. Lasky
    •  & Michael D. Purugganan
  • Letter |

    Mutations in the ZmDMP gene induce maternal haploids and facilitate breeding in maize. Now, a study extends this system of maize to dicots, showing that loss-of-function mutations in the Arabidopsis ZmDMP-like genes also induce maternal haploids.

    • Yu Zhong
    • , Baojian Chen
    • , Mengran Li
    • , Dong Wang
    • , Yanyan Jiao
    • , Xiaolong Qi
    • , Min Wang
    • , Zongkai Liu
    • , Chen Chen
    • , Yuwen Wang
    • , Ming Chen
    • , Jinlong Li
    • , Zijian Xiao
    • , Dehe Cheng
    • , Wenxin Liu
    • , Kim Boutilier
    • , Chenxu Liu
    •  & Shaojiang Chen
  • Article |

    While numerous explanations for reduced pest incidence in organic farms have been noted, plant resistance remains understudied. This article demonstrates tomato resistance to leafhoppers through soil and microbial health.

    • Robert Blundell
    • , Jennifer E. Schmidt
    • , Alexandria Igwe
    • , Andrea L. Cheung
    • , Rachel L. Vannette
    • , Amélie C. M. Gaudin
    •  & Clare L. Casteel
  • Article |

    Plant leaf structure is classified as either simple or compound. A simple leaf is a single leaf, whereas a compound leaf is composed of several leaflets emerging from a single compound leaf primordia. Liangliang He, Yu Liu and colleagues have identified a regulator of compound leaf formation in Medicago truncatula, leading to the discovery of an undefined class of eudicot-specific BEL1-like homeodomain proteins and a molecular framework controlling trifoliate leaf patterning.

    • Liangliang He
    • , Yu Liu
    • , Hua He
    • , Ye Liu
    • , Jinfeng Qi
    • , Xiaojia Zhang
    • , Youhan Li
    • , Yawen Mao
    • , Shaoli Zhou
    • , Xiaoling Zheng
    • , Quanzi Bai
    • , Baolin Zhao
    • , Dongfa Wang
    • , Jiangqi Wen
    • , Kirankumar S. Mysore
    • , Million Tadege
    • , Yongmei Xia
    •  & Jianghua Chen
  • Article |

    The PDK1 lipid-dependent kinase controls PIN1 and auxin transport through a phosphorylation cascade that includes AGC-type kinase D6PK. The double pdk1 mutant reveals auxin-related phenotypes such as reduced gravitropism and lateral roots.

    • Shutang Tan
    • , Xixi Zhang
    • , Wei Kong
    • , Xiao-Li Yang
    • , Gergely Molnár
    • , Zuzana Vondráková
    • , Roberta Filepová
    • , Jan Petrášek
    • , Jiří Friml
    •  & Hong-Wei Xue
  • Article |

    The authors demonstrate the negative role of GOLVEN peptides during lateral root initiation in Arabidopsis, at the very early stage of the first asymmetric cell division of lateral root founder cells, and identify the receptors for these peptides.

    • Ana I. Fernandez
    • , Nick Vangheluwe
    • , Ke Xu
    • , Joris Jourquin
    • , Lucas Alves Neubus Claus
    • , Stefania Morales-Herrera
    • , Boris Parizot
    • , Hugues De Gernier
    • , Qiaozhi Yu
    • , Andrzej Drozdzecki
    • , Takanori Maruta
    • , Kurt Hoogewijs
    • , Willem Vannecke
    • , Brenda Peterson
    • , Davy Opdenacker
    • , Annemieke Madder
    • , Zachary L. Nimchuk
    • , Eugenia Russinova
    •  & Tom Beeckman
  • Perspective |

    Integrating natural selection and other organizing principles into next-generation vegetation models could render them more theoretically sound and useful for earth system applications and modelling climate impacts.

    • Oskar Franklin
    • , Sandy P. Harrison
    • , Roderick Dewar
    • , Caroline E. Farrior
    • , Åke Brännström
    • , Ulf Dieckmann
    • , Stephan Pietsch
    • , Daniel Falster
    • , Wolfgang Cramer
    • , Michel Loreau
    • , Han Wang
    • , Annikki Mäkelä
    • , Karin T. Rebel
    • , Ehud Meron
    • , Stanislaus J. Schymanski
    • , Elena Rovenskaya
    • , Benjamin D. Stocker
    • , Sönke Zaehle
    • , Stefano Manzoni
    • , Marcel van Oijen
    • , Ian J. Wright
    • , Philippe Ciais
    • , Peter M. van Bodegom
    • , Josep Peñuelas
    • , Florian Hofhansl
    • , Cesar Terrer
    • , Nadejda A. Soudzilovskaia
    • , Guy Midgley
    •  & I. Colin Prentice
  • Letter |

    Dichotomous root branching evolved in both lycophytes and euphyllophytes, followed by lateral branching in separate extant lineages during the Devonian and Carboniferous periods, illustrating extreme cases of divergent evolution.

    • Alexander J. Hetherington
    • , Christopher M. Berry
    •  & Liam Dolan
  • Article |

    Global meta-analysis of plant species diversity effects on trophic levels of ecosystem functioning, finding beneficial impacts from increased diversity.

    • Nian-Feng Wan
    • , Xiang-Rong Zheng
    • , Li-Wan Fu
    • , Lars Pødenphant Kiær
    • , Zhijie Zhang
    • , Rebecca Chaplin-Kramer
    • , Matteo Dainese
    • , Jiaqi Tan
    • , Shi-Yun Qiu
    • , Yue-Qing Hu
    • , Wei-Dong Tian
    • , Ming Nie
    • , Rui-Ting Ju
    • , Jian-Yu Deng
    • , Jie-Xian Jiang
    • , You-Ming Cai
    •  & Bo Li
  • Article |

    The structures of four plant phytochrome sensory modules, including an A-type phytochrome, illuminate the function of these red/far-red photoreceptors and suggest the existence of a nuclear localization signal specific to the phytochrome A lineage.

    • Soshichiro Nagano
    • , Kaoling Guan
    • , Sintayehu Manaye Shenkutie
    • , Christian Feiler
    • , Manfred Weiss
    • , Anastasia Kraskov
    • , David Buhrke
    • , Peter Hildebrandt
    •  & Jon Hughes
  • Letter |

    Previous studies showing that mast seeding was synchronized at large scales were constrained to hundreds of kilometres, but this continental-scale study shows that such events are asynchronous, driving spatial and temporal impacts for a wide range of species.

    • Jalene M. LaMontagne
    • , Ian S. Pearse
    • , David F. Greene
    •  & Walter D. Koenig
  • Article |

    Heat stress damages photosystems, especially photosystem II (PSII), thus affecting photosynthetic efficiency. To counteract the thermal damage, a new bioengineering strategy is introduced by expressing a PSII subunit D1 under the control of a heat-responsive promoter in the nuclear genome. The strategy has been tested and found to be effective in Arabidopsis, tobacco and rice.

    • Juan-Hua Chen
    • , Si-Ting Chen
    • , Ning-Yu He
    • , Qing-Long Wang
    • , Yao Zhao
    • , Wei Gao
    •  & Fang-Qing Guo
  • Perspective |

    Climate change will not only challenge current crop modeling techniques, but require new types of models that can account for and operate at multiple scales to measure adaptation and resilience.

    • Bin Peng
    • , Kaiyu Guan
    • , Jinyun Tang
    • , Elizabeth A. Ainsworth
    • , Senthold Asseng
    • , Carl J. Bernacchi
    • , Mark Cooper
    • , Evan H. Delucia
    • , Joshua W. Elliott
    • , Frank Ewert
    • , Robert F. Grant
    • , David I Gustafson
    • , Graeme L. Hammer
    • , Zhenong Jin
    • , James W. Jones
    • , Hyungsuk Kimm
    • , David M. Lawrence
    • , Yan Li
    • , Danica L. Lombardozzi
    • , Amy Marshall-Colon
    • , Carlos D. Messina
    • , Donald R. Ort
    • , James C. Schnable
    • , C. Eduardo Vallejos
    • , Alex Wu
    • , Xinyou Yin
    •  & Wang Zhou
  • Article |

    A novel optical sensor for hydrogen peroxide, based on DNA-wrapped single wall carbon nanotubes, is developed and validated in plants. It can be used in non-model species to study the kinetics of systemic H2O2 propagation in response to wounding.

    • Tedrick Thomas Salim Lew
    • , Volodymyr B. Koman
    • , Kevin S. Silmore
    • , Jun Sung Seo
    • , Pavlo Gordiichuk
    • , Seon-Yeong Kwak
    • , Minkyung Park
    • , Mervin Chun-Yi Ang
    • , Duc Thinh Khong
    • , Michael A. Lee
    • , Mary B. Chan-Park
    • , Nam-Hai Chua
    •  & Michael S. Strano
  • Article |

    The Arabidopsis clock component ELF4 protein moves from shoots to roots to regulate the circadian clock in roots in a temperature-dependent manner. Low temperature increases the mobility of ELF4 and thus leads to a slow-paced root clock.

    • Wei Wei Chen
    • , Nozomu Takahashi
    • , Yoshito Hirata
    • , James Ronald
    • , Silvana Porco
    • , Seth J. Davis
    • , Dmitri A. Nusinow
    • , Steve A. Kay
    •  & Paloma Mas
  • Letter |

    The AHL15 transcription factor is a repressor of axillary meristem maturation. AHL15 is downstream of flowering genes and prolongs the vegetative growth and longevity of plants, particularly monocarps such as Arabidopsis thaliana.

    • Omid Karami
    • , Arezoo Rahimi
    • , Majid Khan
    • , Marian Bemer
    • , Rashmi R. Hazarika
    • , Patrick Mak
    • , Monique Compier
    • , Vera van Noort
    •  & Remko Offringa
  • Letter |

    Fire has shaped plant life for millions of years, but flammability as an inherited trait has been difficult to discern. This Letter reveals several predictors in the evolution of plant flammability.

    • Xinglei Cui
    • , Adrian M. Paterson
    • , Sarah V. Wyse
    • , Md Azharul Alam
    • , Kévin J. L. Maurin
    • , Robin Pieper
    • , Josep Padullés Cubino
    • , Dean M. O’Connell
    • , Djessie Donkers
    • , Julien Bréda
    • , Hannah L. Buckley
    • , George L. W. Perry
    •  & Timothy J. Curran
  • Article |

    Apertures are thin areas on the wall of pollen grains where pollen tubes can penetrate. The number and configuration of pollen apertures vary drastically in different plant species. Here, Xu Zhang and colleagues identify a novel aperture factor that is essential for the formation of pollen aperture and for reproduction in rice.

    • Xu Zhang
    • , Guochao Zhao
    • , Qian Tan
    • , Hui Yuan
    • , Natalie Betts
    • , Lu Zhu
    • , Dabing Zhang
    •  & Wanqi Liang
  • Article |

    Temperature-dependent translational enhancement of PIF7 promotes gene expression for thermomorphogenesis in Arabidopsis during warm daytime. This enhanced translation is mediated by an RNA hairpin which shifts conformation at higher temperatures.

    • Betty Y. W. Chung
    • , Martin Balcerowicz
    • , Marco Di Antonio
    • , Katja E. Jaeger
    • , Feng Geng
    • , Krzysztof Franaszek
    • , Poppy Marriott
    • , Ian Brierley
    • , Andrew E. Firth
    •  & Philip A. Wigge
  • Letter |

    Mitochondria ribosomes translate essential mRNAs encoded by mitochondrial genomes. The cryo-EM structure of the 78S mitoribosome from cauliflower shows plant-specific pentatricopeptide repeat proteins binding rRNAs expanded over those of animals.

    • Florent Waltz
    • , Heddy Soufari
    • , Anthony Bochler
    • , Philippe Giegé
    •  & Yaser Hashem
  • Letter |

    Analyses of Arabidopsis temperature-sensitive genic male sterility lines show that slowing development overcomes microspore defects and restores fertility, suggesting that low temperature reverses their fertility as a general factor by slowing development.

    • Jun Zhu
    • , Yue Lou
    • , Qiang-Sheng Shi
    • , Sen Zhang
    • , Wen-Tao Zhou
    • , Jun Yang
    • , Cheng Zhang
    • , Xiao-Zhen Yao
    • , Te Xu
    • , Jia-Li Liu
    • , Lei Zhou
    • , Jian-Qiao Hou
    • , Jia-Qi Wang
    • , Shui Wang
    • , Xue-Hui Huang
    •  & Zhong-Nan Yang
  • Letter |

    In plant communities, co-occurring species compete for resources such as mineral nutrients under limited supply. Here, the researchers found that a major mineral nutrient, phosphorus, was taken up by co-occurring plants in species-specific proportions of different forms, which may drive the development of community biodiversity.

    • Gareth K. Phoenix
    • , David A. Johnson
    • , Stephen P. Muddimer
    • , Jonathan R. Leake
    •  & Duncan D. Cameron
  • Perspective |

    Genetically modified cotton has been used in India for 20 years, but while yield increases have received vast attention, this Perspective provides a comprehensive overview of both the inputs and outputs that correspond with those yields.

    • K. R. Kranthi
    •  & Glenn Davis Stone
  • Article
    | Open Access

    Analyses of three high-quality genomes of Anthoceros hornworts place hornworts as a sister clade to the lineage including liverworts and mosses, and provide insights into the unique biological features of hornworts.

    • Fay-Wei Li
    • , Tomoaki Nishiyama
    • , Manuel Waller
    • , Eftychios Frangedakis
    • , Jean Keller
    • , Zheng Li
    • , Noe Fernandez-Pozo
    • , Michael S. Barker
    • , Tom Bennett
    • , Miguel A. Blázquez
    • , Shifeng Cheng
    • , Andrew C. Cuming
    • , Jan de Vries
    • , Sophie de Vries
    • , Pierre-Marc Delaux
    • , Issa S. Diop
    • , C. Jill Harrison
    • , Duncan Hauser
    • , Jorge Hernández-García
    • , Alexander Kirbis
    • , John C. Meeks
    • , Isabel Monte
    • , Sumanth K. Mutte
    • , Anna Neubauer
    • , Dietmar Quandt
    • , Tanner Robison
    • , Masaki Shimamura
    • , Stefan A. Rensing
    • , Juan Carlos Villarreal
    • , Dolf Weijers
    • , Susann Wicke
    • , Gane K.-S. Wong
    • , Keiko Sakakibara
    •  & Péter Szövényi
  • Letter |

    Restoring ecosystems depends on the cultivation of native plants to balance biodiversity with agricultural needs. This Letter finds that despite being overlooked for commercial varieties, 85% of Mediterranean native annuals could be used in olive groves for nature-based agronomy.

    • Borja Jiménez-Alfaro
    • , Stephanie Frischie
    • , Juliane Stolz
    •  & Cándido Gálvez-Ramírez
  • Article |

    Five genome-wide approaches are integrated to give a comprehensive picture of jasmonic acid signalling networks in Arabidopsis. New genes, validated by mutant analysis, and important connections with other pathways are revealed.

    • Mark Zander
    • , Mathew G. Lewsey
    • , Natalie M. Clark
    • , Lingling Yin
    • , Anna Bartlett
    • , J. Paula Saldierna Guzmán
    • , Elizabeth Hann
    • , Amber E. Langford
    • , Bruce Jow
    • , Aaron Wise
    • , Joseph R. Nery
    • , Huaming Chen
    • , Ziv Bar-Joseph
    • , Justin W. Walley
    • , Roberto Solano
    •  & Joseph R. Ecker
  • Article |

    Mosses are considered non-vascular plants in botany. Here, the authors have shown that a common moss species contains vascular-like structures with physiological relevance to the water-conducting tissues of vascular plants.

    • T. J. Brodribb
    • , M. Carriquí
    • , S. Delzon
    • , S. A. M. McAdam
    •  & N. M. Holbrook
  • Letter |

    The cyanobacterial chlorophyll, Chl f, absorbs far-red light. Mutation of two residues in a subunit of photosystem II converts it to a Chl f synthase. This ‘super-rogue’ photosystem might improve photosynthetic efficiency in low light.

    • Joko P. Trinugroho
    • , Martina Bečková
    • , Shengxi Shao
    • , Jianfeng Yu
    • , Ziyu Zhao
    • , James W. Murray
    • , Roman Sobotka
    • , Josef Komenda
    •  & Peter J. Nixon
  • Letter |

    Arabidopsis plants try to escape shade or competitor proximity by growing faster. The authors identify sulfotransferase ST2a as a link between light perception and growth increase through inactivation of jasmonates.

    • Guadalupe L. Fernández-Milmanda
    • , Carlos D. Crocco
    • , Michael Reichelt
    • , Carlos A. Mazza
    • , Tobias G. Köllner
    • , Tong Zhang
    • , Miriam D. Cargnel
    • , Micaela Z. Lichy
    • , Anne-Sophie Fiorucci
    • , Christian Fankhauser
    • , Abraham J. Koo
    • , Amy T. Austin
    • , Jonathan Gershenzon
    •  & Carlos L. Ballaré
  • Brief Communication |

    The highly efficient and specific Cas12b is a new tool for genome editing with CRISPR in rice. This system can also be engineered for targeted transcriptional repression and activation.

    • Meiling Ming
    • , Qiurong Ren
    • , Changtian Pan
    • , Yao He
    • , Yingxiao Zhang
    • , Shishi Liu
    • , Zhaohui Zhong
    • , Jiaheng Wang
    • , Aimee A. Malzahn
    • , Jun Wu
    • , Xuelian Zheng
    • , Yong Zhang
    •  & Yiping Qi
  • Letter |

    Different from the degradative microbial laccases, plant laccases are involved in lignin biosynthesis and the regulation of plant development. The catalytic structure of plant laccases has remained enigmatic until now. Here, a maize laccase, ZmLac3, is characterized in complex with two types of lignin monomers.

    • Tian Xie
    • , Zhongchuan Liu
    •  & Ganggang Wang
  • Article |

    An extensive phylogenomics study based on hundreds of genomes and transcriptomes provides a new interpretation of the evolution of different types of symbiotic associations in land plants, and reveals a conserved ancestral symbiosis pathway.

    • Guru V. Radhakrishnan
    • , Jean Keller
    • , Melanie K. Rich
    • , Tatiana Vernié
    • , Duchesse L. Mbadinga Mbadinga
    • , Nicolas Vigneron
    • , Ludovic Cottret
    • , Hélène San Clemente
    • , Cyril Libourel
    • , Jitender Cheema
    • , Anna-Malin Linde
    • , D. Magnus Eklund
    • , Shifeng Cheng
    • , Gane K. S. Wong
    • , Ulf Lagercrantz
    • , Fay-Wei Li
    • , Giles E. D. Oldroyd
    •  & Pierre-Marc Delaux
  • Article |

    The photosystem I light-harvesting complex from the salt-tolerant green alga Dunaliella salina has a core configuration composed of only seven subunits. This unusual molecular organization could inform the reconstruction of photosystem evolution.

    • Annemarie Perez-Boerema
    • , Daniel Klaiman
    • , Ido Caspy
    • , Sigal Y. Netzer-El
    • , Alexey Amunts
    •  & Nathan Nelson
  • Brief Communication |

    The widely used SpCas9-NG tool can edit genomic targets, but unfortunately also the guide RNA sequences that are present in the transfer DNA and integrated into the plant genome. The authors propose a strategy to alleviate this self-editing risk.

    • Ruiying Qin
    • , Juan Li
    • , Xiaoshuang Liu
    • , Rongfang Xu
    • , Jianbo Yang
    •  & Pengcheng Wei
  • Letter
    | Open Access

    Genome assemblies of two aquatic species, prickly waterlily and rigid hornwort, clarify the early diversification and phylogeny of plants. Multiple independent polyploidization events are inferred in each of the five major angiosperm clades.

    • Yongzhi Yang
    • , Pengchuan Sun
    • , Leke Lv
    • , Donglei Wang
    • , Dafu Ru
    • , Ying Li
    • , Tao Ma
    • , Lei Zhang
    • , Xingxing Shen
    • , Fanbo Meng
    • , Beibei Jiao
    • , Lanxing Shan
    • , Man Liu
    • , Qingfeng Wang
    • , Zhiji Qin
    • , Zhenxiang Xi
    • , Xiyin Wang
    • , Charles C. Davis
    •  & Jianquan Liu
  • Article |

    The photoprotective mechanism qH requires the plastid lipocalin LCNP and ROQH1, a relaxation factor localized to the stroma lamellae membrane. Analyses under high and low light show that LCNP and ROQH1 perform dosage-dependent, antagonistic functions.

    • Cynthia L. Amstutz
    • , Rikard Fristedt
    • , Alex Schultink
    • , Sabeeha S. Merchant
    • , Krishna K. Niyogi
    •  & Alizée Malnoë
  • Article |

    Pollen tubes constantly search for and respond to female cues for guided growth and efficient sperm delivery. In this study, the researchers characterized three MLO genes in Arabidopsis whose mutants showed twisting pollen tubes and deficiency in ovule targeting. As an ancient and vital gene family in plants, MLOs are also involved in pathogen resistance and plant–environment interactions.

    • Jiang-Guo Meng
    • , Liang Liang
    • , Peng-Fei Jia
    • , Ying-Chun Wang
    • , Hong-Ju Li
    •  & Wei-Cai Yang