Understanding the interplay between a quantum system and its environment lies at the heart of quantum science and its applications. So far most efforts have focused on circumventing decoherence induced by the environment by either protecting the system from the associated noise1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or by manipulating the environment directly6, 7, 8, 9. Recently, parallel efforts using the environment as a resource have emerged, which could enable dissipation-driven quantum computation and coupling of distant quantum bits10, 11, 12, 13, 14. Here, we realize the optical control of a semiconductor quantum-dot spin by relying on its interaction with an adiabatically evolving spin environment. The emergence of hyperfine-induced, quasi-static optical selection rules enables the optical generation of coherent spin dark states without an external magnetic field. We show that the phase and amplitude of the lasers implement multi-axis manipulation of the basis spanned by the dark and bright states, enabling control via projection into a spin-superposition state. Our approach can be extended, within the scope of quantum control and feedback15, 16, to other systems interacting with an adiabatically evolving environment.
At a glance
- Quantum spin Hall insulator state in HgTe quantum wells. Science 318, 766–770 (2007). et al.
- Ultrafast optical spin echo in a single quantum dot. Nature Photon. 4, 367–370 (2010). et al.
- Dephasing time of GaAs electron-spin qubits coupled to a nuclear bath exceeding 200 μs. Nature Phys. 7, 109–113 (2011). et al.
- Coherent two-electron spin qubits in an optically active pair of coupled InGaAs quantum dots. Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 107401 (2012). , , , &
- Atomic clock transitions in silicon-based spin qubits. Nature Nanotech. 8, 561–564 (2013). et al.
- Optically controlled locking of the nuclear field via coherent dark-state spectroscopy. Nature 459, 1105–1109 (2009). et al.
- Confluence of resonant laser excitation and bidirectional quantum-dot nuclear-spin polarization. Nature Phys. 5, 758–763 (2009). et al.
- Universal quantum control of two-electron spin quantum bits using dynamic nuclear polarization. Nature Phys. 5, 903–908 (2009). , , , &
- Controlling the quantum dynamics of a mesoscopic spin bath in diamond. Sci. Rep. 2, 382 (2012). et al.
- Cavity loss induced generation of entangled atoms. Phys. Rev. A 59, 2468–2475 (1999). , , &
- Quantum states and phases in driven open quantum systems with cold atoms. Nature Phys. 4, 878–883 (2008). et al.
- Quantum computation and quantum-state engineering driven by dissipation. Nature Phys. 5, 633–636 (2009). , &
- Dissipative production of a maximally entangled steady state of two quantum bits. Nature 504, 415–418 (2013). et al.
- Entangling two defects via a surrounding crystal. Phys. Rev. A 87, 050304 (2013). et al.
- Principles and applications of control on quantum systems. Int. J. Robust Nonlinear Control 15, 647–667 (2005). &
- Focus on quantum control. New J. Phys. 11, 105030 (2009).
- Optical spin initialization and nondestructive measurement in a quantum dot molecule. Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 236804 (2008). et al.
- Observation of spin-dependent quantum jumps via quantum dot resonance fluorescence. Nature 467, 297–300 (2010). et al.
- Observation of quantum jumps of a single quantum dot spin using sub-microsecond single-shot optical readout. Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 116802 (2014). , , , &
- Complete quantum control of a single quantum dot spin using ultrafast optical pulses. Nature 456, 218–221 (2008). , , &
- Electron spin relaxation by nuclei in semiconductor quantum dots. Phys. Rev. B 65, 205309 (2002). , &
- Nuclear spin physics in quantum dots: An optical investigation. Rev. Mod. Phys. 85, 79–133 (2013). et al.
- Charge noise and spin noise in a semiconductor quantum device. Nature Phys. 9, 570–575 (2013). et al.
- Photon bunching in the fluorescence from single molecules: A probe for intersystem crossing. J. Chem. Phys. 98, 850–859 (1993). , , &
- Electromagnetically induced transparency: Optics in coherent media. Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633–673 (2005). , &
- Coherent population trapping of an electron spin in a single negatively charged quantum dot. Nature Phys. 4, 692–695 (2008). et al.
- A coherent single-hole spin in a semiconductor. Science 325, 70–72 (2009). et al.
- Acoustic phonon broadening mechanism in single quantum dot emission. Phys. Rev. B 63, 155307 (2001). , , &
- Coherent population trapping of electron spins in a high-purity n-type GaAs semiconductor. Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 187405 (2005). , , , &
- Electromagnetically induced transparency with an ensemble of donor-bound electron spins in a semiconductor. Phys. Rev. B 82, 121308 (2010). et al.
- Optical investigations of quantum dot spin dynamics as a function of external electric and magnetic fields. Phys. Rev. B 77, 075317 (2008). et al.
- All-optical control of a solid state spin using coherent dark states. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 110, 7595–7600 (2013). et al.
- Proposal for pulsed on-demand sources of photonic cluster state strings. Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 113602 (2009). &
- Supplementary Information (953KB)