Raman quantum memory of photonic polarized entanglement

Journal name:
Nature Photonics
Volume:
9,
Pages:
332–338
Year published:
DOI:
doi:10.1038/nphoton.2015.43
Received
Accepted
Published online

Abstract

The storage of photonic entanglement is central to the achievement of long-distance quantum communication based on quantum repeaters and scalable linear optical quantum computation. Among the memory protocols reported to date, the Raman scheme has the advantages of being broadband and high-speed, resulting in a huge potential in quantum networks. To date there have been no reports on the storage of photonic polarized entanglement using the Raman protocol. Here, two storage experiments using the Raman scheme are reported: (1) heralded single-photon entanglement of the path and polarization storage in a cold atomic ensemble, and (2) polarization entanglement storage in two cold atomic ensembles. The experimental data clearly show that the quantum entanglement is preserved in this memory platform. Our work shows great promise for the establishment of quantum networks in high-speed communications.

At a glance

Figures

  1. Energy diagram and experimental set-up.
    Figure 1: Energy diagram and experimental set-up.

    a, Simplified energy level diagram and time sequence for the generation, storage and retrieval of polarization entanglement. H and V are the horizontal and vertical polarizations, respectively. P1 and P2 are modulated pulses with 25 ns (Δt) and 160 ns pulse widths, respectively, from two acoustic optic modulators. b, Simplified set-up. L and R refer to two SRS paths in MOT A. MOT, magneto-optical trap. PBS, polarization beamsplitter. λ/2, half-wave plate. λ/4, quarter-wave plate. S, Stokes photon. AS, anti-Stokes photon. D1, D2 and D3 are single-photon detectors 1, 2 and 3, respectively (PerkinElmer SPCM-AQR-15-FC). PD, home-made photoelectric detector. PZT, piezoelectric transducer. U and D are up and down optical modes input into MOT B, respectively. P, half-wave plate. θ, phase of the inserted phase plate.

  2. Interference of single photon for input and output.
    Figure 2: Interference of single photon for input and output.

    a,b, Coincidence between the Stokes photon detected by detector D3 and the anti-Stokes photon detected by detector D1 (circles) and detector D2 (triangles), respectively, with a different phase before (a) and after (b) storage. Solid curves are fitted lines. All experimental data are raw data without error corrections. Error bars are ±1 standard deviation.

  3. Density matrices for input and output.
    Figure 3: Density matrices for input and output.

    a,b, Density matrices of the input state before storage (a) and the output state after storage (b). All experimental data are raw data without any error corrections.

  4. Reconstructed density matrix before and after storage.
    Figure 4: Reconstructed density matrix before and after storage.

    ad, Reconstructed real (a,c) and imaginary (b,d) parts of the input (a,b) and output (c,d) density matrices, respectively. The density matrices were reconstructed with losses. All experimental data are raw data without error corrections.

  5. Two-photon interference before and after storage.
    Figure 5: Two-photon interference before and after storage.

    The red and blue curves represent the coincidence rates for detectors D2 and D3, respectively, with the Stokes photons projected in the base: |H〉((|H〉 − |V〉)/21/2). a,b, Interference before (a) and after (b) storage. Data are all raw data without any corrections. Error bars are ±1 standard deviation.

References

  1. Kimble, H. J. The quantum internet. Nature 453, 10231030 (2008).
  2. Lvovsky, A. I., Sanders, B. C. & Tittel, W. Optical quantum memory. Nature Photon. 3, 706714 (2009).
  3. Bussières, F. et al. Perspective applications of optical quantum memories. J. Mod. Opt. 60, 15191537 (2013).
  4. Briegel, H.-J., Dür, W., Cirac, J. I. & Zoller, P. Quantum repeaters: the role of imperfect local operations in quantum communication. Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 59325935 (1998).
  5. Duan, L.-M., Lukin, M. D., Cirac, J. I. & Zoller, P. Long-distance quantum communication with atomic ensembles and linear optics. Nature 414, 413418 (2001).
  6. England, D. G. et al. High-fidelity polarization storage in a gigahertz bandwidth quantum memory. J. Phys. B. 45, 124008 (2012).
  7. Zhang, H. J. et al. Preparation and storage of frequency-uncorrelated entangled photons from cavity-enhanced spontaneous parametric downconversion. Nature Photon. 5, 628632 (2011).
  8. Dai, H.-N. et al. Holographic storage of biphoton entanglement. Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 210501 (2012).
  9. Harris, S. E., Field, J. E. & Imamoglu, A. Nonlinear optical processes using electromagnetically induced transparency. Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 11071110 (1990).
  10. Chanelière, T. et al. Storage and retrieval of single photons transmitted between remote quantum memories. Nature 438, 833836 (2005).
  11. Xu, Z. et al. Long lifetime and high-fidelity quantum memory of photonic polarization qubit by lifting Zeeman degeneracy. Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 240503 (2013).
  12. Kozhekin, A. E., Mølmer, K. & Polzik, E. Quantum memory for light. Phys. Rev. A 62, 033809 (2000).
  13. Nunn, J. et al. Mapping broadband single-photon wave packets into an atomic memory. Phys. Rev. A 75, 011401R (2007).
  14. Reim, K. F. et al. Toward high-speed optical quantum memories. Nature Photon. 4, 218221 (2010).
  15. Reim, K. F. et al. Single-photon-level quantum memory at room temperature. Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 053603 (2011).
  16. Ding, D.-S. et al. Quantum storage of orbital angular momentum entanglement in an atomic ensemble. Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 050502 (2015).
  17. Michelberger, P. S., Champion, T. F. M., Sprague, M. R. & Kaczmarek, I. A. Interfacing GHz-bandwidth heralded single photons with a room-temperature Raman quantum memory. Preprint at http://arxiv.org/abs/1405.1470 (2014).
  18. Bustard, P. J., Lausten, R., England, D. G. & Sussman, B. J. Toward quantum processing in molecules: a THz-bandwidth coherent memory for light. Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 083901 (2013).
  19. England, D. G., Bustard, P. J., Nunn, J., Lausten, R. & Sussman, B. J. From photons to phonons and back: a THz optical memory in diamond. Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 243601 (2013).
  20. Moiseev, S. A. & Kröll, S. Complete reconstruction of the quantum state of a single-photon wave packet absorbed by a Doppler-broadened transition. Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 173601 (2001).
  21. Kraus, B. et al. Quantum memory for nonstationary light fields based on controlled reversible inhomogeneous broadening. Phys. Rev. A 73, 020302(R) (2006).
  22. Alexander, A. L., Longdell, J. J., Sellars, M. J. & Manson, N. B. Photon echoes produced by switching electric fields. Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 043602 (2006).
  23. Tittel, W. et al. Photon-echo quantum memory in solid state systems. Laser Photon. Rev. 4, 244267 (2010).
  24. Afzelius, M., Simon, C., De Riedmatten, H. & Gisin, N. Multimode quantum memory based on atomic frequency combs. Phys. Rev. A 79, 052329 (2009).
  25. Buchler, B. C., Hosseini, M., Hetet, G., Sparkes, B. M. & Lam, P. K. Precision spectral manipulation of optical pulses using a coherent photon echo memory. Opt. Lett. 35, 10911093 (2010).
  26. Hosseini, M., Sparkes, B. M., Campbell, G., Lam, P. K. & Buchler, B. C. High efficiency coherent optical memory with warm rubidium vapour. Nature Commun. 2, 174 (2011).
  27. Fiore, V. et al. Storing optical information as a mechanical excitation in a silica optomechanical resonator. Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 133601 (2011).
  28. Julsgaard, B., Sherson, J., Cirac, J. I., Fiurašek, J. & Polzik, E. S. Experimental demonstration of quantum memory for light. Nature 432, 482486 (2004).
  29. Julsgaard, B., Kozhekin, A. & Polzik, E. S. Experimental long-lived entanglement of two macroscopic objects. Nature 413, 400403 (2001).
  30. Choi, K. S., Deng, H., Laurat, J. & Kimble, H. J. Mapping photonic entanglement into and out of a quantum memory. Nature 452, 6771 (2008).
  31. Saglamyurek, E. et al. Broadband waveguide quantum memory for entangled photons. Nature 469, 512515 (2011).
  32. Clausen, C. et al. Quantum storage of photonic entanglement in a crystal. Nature 469, 508511 (2011).
  33. Liu, Y., Wu, J.-H., Shi, B.-S. & Guo, G.-C. Realization of a two-dimensional magneto-optical trap with a high optical depth. Chinese Phys. Lett. 29, 024205 (2012).
  34. Kuzmich, A. et al. Generation of nonclassical photon pairs for scalable quantum communication with atomic ensembles. Nature 423, 731734 (2003).
  35. Ding, D.-S., Zhou, Z.-Y., Shi, B.-S. & Guo, G.-C. Single-photon-level quantum image memory based on cold atomic ensembles. Nature Commun 4, 2527 (2013).
  36. Clauser, J. F., Horne, M. A., Shimony, A. & Holt, R. A. Proposed experiment to test local hidden-variable theories. Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 880884 (1969).
  37. Chen, S. et al. Demonstration of a stable atom–photon entanglement source for quantum repeaters. Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 180505 (2007).
  38. Liao, K. et al. Subnatural-linewidth polarization-entangled photon pairs with controllable temporal length. Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 243602 (2014).
  39. Hamel, D. R. et al. Direct generation of three-photon polarization entanglement. Nature Photon. 8, 801807 (2014).
  40. Barz, S., Cronenberg, G., Zeilinger, A. & Walther, P. Heralded generation of entangled photon pairs. Nature Photon. 4, 553556 (2010).
  41. Wagenknecht, C. et al. Experimental demonstration of a heralded entanglement source. Nature Photon. 4, 549552 (2010).
  42. Surmacz, K. et al. Efficient spatially resolved multimode quantum memory. Phys. Rev. A 78, 033806 (2008).
  43. Zhao, B. et al. A millisecond quantum memory for scalable quantum networks. Nature Phys. 5, 9599 (2008).
  44. Bao, X.-H. et al. Efficient and long-lived quantum memory with cold atoms inside a ring cavity. Nature Phys. 8, 517521 (2012).
  45. Radnaev, A. G. et al. A quantum memory with telecom-wavelength conversion. Nature Phys. 6, 894899 (2010).
  46. Heinze, G., Hubrich, C. & Halfmann, T. Stopped light and image storage by electromagnetically induced transparency up to the regime of one minute. Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 033601 (2013).

Download references

Author information

  1. These authors contributed equally to this work

    • Dong-Sheng Ding &
    • Wei Zhang

Affiliations

  1. Key Laboratory of Quantum Information, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026, China

    • Dong-Sheng Ding,
    • Wei Zhang,
    • Zhi-Yuan Zhou,
    • Shuai Shi,
    • Bao-Sen Shi &
    • Guang-Can Guo
  2. Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information & Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026, China

    • Dong-Sheng Ding,
    • Wei Zhang,
    • Zhi-Yuan Zhou,
    • Shuai Shi,
    • Bao-Sen Shi &
    • Guang-Can Guo

Contributions

B.S.S. conceived the idea and experiment. W.Z. and D.S.D. designed and carried out the experiments with assistance from Z.Y.Z. and S.S. D.S.D. and W.Z. carried out data analysis. D.S.D. wrote the manuscript. B.S.S. and G.C.G. supervised the project.

Competing financial interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to:

Author details

Supplementary information

PDF files

  1. Supplementary information (474 KB)

    Supplementary information

Additional data