Table of contents



Students are our future p341


It is not an overstatement to say that the future of optics and photonics lies in the hands of students. Every little investment, be it intellectual or financial, can potentially yield immeasurable returns.



Resolving a misconception about structured illumination pp342 - 344

Kai Wicker & Rainer Heintzmann


Applying structured illumination microscopy to coherent imaging modalities such as scattering does not yield any additional information beyond that provided by oblique illumination. It thus yields no resolution enhancement over the Abbe diffraction limit, which was derived precisely for that case.

Making spatial multiplexing a reality pp345 - 348

Peter J. Winzer


To avoid a 'capacity crunch', future optical networks will need to simultaneously transmit multiple spatial channels. For spatial multiplexing to be practical, the upgrade path from legacy wavelength-division multiplexed systems needs to be smooth and to consider integration-induced crosstalk from the outset.


Books and Arts

New titles at a glance p349

Optical Coatings: Material Aspects in Theory and Practice By Olaf Stenzel



News and Views

Lithography: Chalcogenide promise p352

Simon Pleasants


Soft-X-ray sources: X-ray laser plasma amplifiers pp352 - 354

Masaharu Nishikino & Tetsuya Kawachi


The realization of an X-ray laser plasma amplifier using a stretched X-ray pulse leads to higher intensity and better quality X-ray laser pulses.

See also: Letter by Wang et al.

Integrated photonics: 10,000 tiny lasers p354

David Pile




Quantum information transfer using photons pp356 - 363

T. E. Northup & R. Blatt


Recent advances in quantum information transfer by photons are reviewed. The theoretical framework for information transfer between nodes of a quantum network is described, and several key experiments for remote atom–atom entanglement mediated by light are illustrated. The prospects for hybrid systems currently in development are also discussed.



Experimental realization of a concatenated Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger state for macroscopic quantum superpositions pp364 - 368

He Lu, Luo-Kan Chen, Chang Liu, Ping Xu, Xing-Can Yao, Li Li, Nai-Le Liu, Bo Zhao, Yu-Ao Chen & Jian-Wei Pan


With the help of two photonic controlled-NOT gates, a three-logical-qubit concatenated Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger (C-GHZ) state encoded by a six-photon graph state is experimentally created. Observation of the dynamics of distillability evolving under a collective noisy environment revealed that the C-GHZ state is more robust than the conventional GHZ state.

Diamond nonlinear photonics pp369 - 374

B. J. M. Hausmann, I. Bulu, V. Venkataraman, P. Deotare & M. Lončar


An optical parametric oscillator in the telecom wavelength range is realized in a diamond system consisting of a ring resonator coupled to a diamond waveguide. Threshold powers as low as 20 mW are measured and up to 20 new wavelengths are generated from a single-frequency pump laser.

Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs pp375 - 380

Joerg Pfeifle, Victor Brasch, Matthias Lauermann, Yimin Yu, Daniel Wegner, Tobias Herr, Klaus Hartinger, Philipp Schindler, Jingshi Li, David Hillerkuss, Rene Schmogrow, Claudius Weimann, Ronald Holzwarth, Wolfgang Freude, Juerg Leuthold, Tobias J. Kippenberg & Christian Koos


Kerr frequency combs are well suited for high-capacity data transmission with phase-sensitive modulation formats. This work demonstrates error-free transmission with data rates of up to 1.44 Tbit s−1, spectral efficiencies of up to 6 bit s−1 Hz−1 and transmission distances of up to 300 km.

Gain dynamics in a soft-X-ray laser amplifier perturbed by a strong injected X-ray field pp381 - 384

Y. Wang, S. Wang, E. Oliva, L. Li, M. Berrill, L. Yin, J. Nejdl, B. M. Luther, C. Proux, T. T. T. Le, J. Dunn, D. Ros, Ph. Zeitoun & J. J. Rocca


The first X-ray-pump–X-ray-probe measurement of the nonlinear response of a plasma amplifier perturbed by a ultrashort soft-X-ray pulse is demonstrated. Two time-delayed 18.9-nm-wavelength pulses were incident on a plasma, and the gain depletion induced by saturated amplification of the pump was measured with a femtosecond resolution.

See also: News and Views by Nishikino & Kawachi



The influence of molecular orientation on organic bulk heterojunction solar cells pp385 - 391

John R. Tumbleston, Brian A. Collins, Liqiang Yang, Andrew C. Stuart, Eliot Gann, Wei Ma, Wei You & Harald Ade


X-ray scattering experiments indicate that the molecular orientation at the interfaces of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells influences the cells’ fill factor and short-circuit current.

Large-area luminescent solar concentrators based on ‘Stokes-shift-engineered’ nanocrystals in a mass-polymerized PMMA matrix pp392 - 399

Francesco Meinardi, Annalisa Colombo, Kirill A. Velizhanin, Roberto Simonutti, Monica Lorenzon, Luca Beverina, Ranjani Viswanatha, Victor I. Klimov & Sergio Brovelli


Stokes-shift-engineered CdSe/CdS quantum dots are used to fabricate luminescent solar concentrators that are tens of centimetres long and do not exhibit reabsorption losses. With efficiencies of over 10% and an effective concentration factor of 4.4, they demonstrate the potential of using Stokes-shift-engineered quantum dots in large-area luminescent solar concentrators.

Shape-induced force fields in optical trapping pp400 - 405

D. B. Phillips, M. J. Padgett, S. Hanna, Y.-L. D. Ho, D. M. Carberry, M. J. Miles & S. H. Simpson


Through shaping of colloidal particles, optical traps with prescribed force–displacement profiles are generated and are used to design a microscopic constant-force spring capable of delivering a constant piconewton-scale restoring force for displacements of several micrometres. Potential future applications include the imaging of sensitive biological membranes.

Watt-class high-power, high-beam-quality photonic-crystal lasers pp406 - 411

Kazuyoshi Hirose, Yong Liang, Yoshitaka Kurosaka, Akiyoshi Watanabe, Takahiro Sugiyama & Susumu Noda


Researchers demonstrate a watt-class high-power, single-mode photonic-crystal laser operating continuously at room temperature. A beam quality of M2 ≤ 1.1 is achieved.

Tunable hot-carrier photodetection beyond the bandgap spectral limit pp412 - 418

Yan-Feng Lao, A. G. Unil Perera, L. H. Li, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield & H. C. Liu


By exploiting hot-carrier injection, the photodetection capabilities of a semiconductor structure have been extended to wavelengths as long as 55 µm, which is well beyond the usual spectral limits determined by energy levels.

See also: Interview with Unil Perera



Hot-hole photodetectors p420

Interview with Unil Perera


By injecting high-energy charge carriers (dubbed 'hot holes') into a semiconductor, scientists have succeeded in realizing photodetectors capable of detecting ultralong wavelengths. Unil Perera from Georgia State University in the USA explains how the devices work and how they can be improved.

See also: Article by Lao et al.


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