Quantum teleportation on a photonic chip

Journal name:
Nature Photonics
Volume:
8,
Pages:
770–774
Year published:
DOI:
doi:10.1038/nphoton.2014.217
Received
Accepted
Published online

Quantum teleportation is a fundamental concept in quantum physics1 that now finds important applications at the heart of quantum technology, including quantum relays2, quantum repeaters3 and linear optics quantum computing4, 5. Photonic implementations have largely focused on achieving long-distance teleportation for decoherence-free quantum communication6, 7, 8. Teleportation also plays a vital role in photonic quantum computing4, 5, for which large linear optical networks will probably require an integrated architecture. Here, we report a fully integrated implementation of quantum teleportation in which all key parts of the circuit—entangled state preparation, Bell-state analysis and tomographic state measurement—are performed on a reconfigurable photonic chip. We also show that a novel element-wise characterization method is critical to the mitigation of component errors, a key technique that will become increasingly important as integrated circuits reach the higher complexities necessary for quantum enhanced operation.

At a glance

Figures

  1. Quantum teleportation and photonic chip realization.
    Figure 1: Quantum teleportation and photonic chip realization.

    a, Circuit diagram of a general quantum teleportation scheme. b, In the present experiment we replace the two CNOT gates with two C-PHASE gates and additional local Hadamard operations. The results of the Bell state measurement (BSM) are used in post-processing as part of quantum state tomography to recover the teleported qubit. c, In the on-chip realization, three qubits are encoded using dual-rail logic in a silica-on-silicon integrated chip. Local Hadamard operations (H1 to H4) are performed using beamsplitters of reflectivity 1/2 (solid lines) and the two cascaded C-PHASE gates (CZ1, CZ2) are implemented using four beamsplitters of reflectivity 1/3 (dashed lines). State preparation and tomography are performed on chip using thermo-optically controlled phases θ and ϕ.

  2. Reconstructed density matrices of the teleported states.
    Figure 2: Reconstructed density matrices of the teleported states.

    ac, The initial qubit states on Q1 for each of three trials are depicted on the Bloch sphere (top) and as real and imaginary parts of a density matrix (black wire frames, middle and bottom, respectively). The final teleported states on Q3 are reconstructed using on-chip quantum state tomography and then transformed by optimal state-independent rotations in post-processing (coloured bars). The fidelity between the initial and final state shown is calculated (bottom). Representative data here are for experiments with a |Ψ+〉 Bell state measurement outcome. Similar reconstructed states for all four Bell state measurement outcomes are found in Supplementary Figs 1 and 2.

  3. Measured and simulated fidelity of on-chip quantum teleportation.
    Figure 3: Measured and simulated fidelity of on-chip quantum teleportation.

    Measured fidelities of three teleported states ( , and , from left to right) for each outcome of the Bell state measurement are plotted with circles. Errors are calculated using a Monte Carlo method taking account of Poissonian counting statistics and uncertainties in the characterized measurement operators and input states. Red shaded areas show the measured fidelity averaged over all three input states, which clearly exceeds the best average classical fidelity given by the red dotted line. The blue shaded areas show the predicted average fidelity taking into account imperfect circuit fabrication, higher-order photon emission and residual photon distinguishability. The error on these predictions is estimated using a Monte Carlo method over a range of different input states and model parameters.

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Author information

Affiliations

  1. Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU, UK

    • Benjamin J. Metcalf,
    • Justin B. Spring,
    • Peter C. Humphreys,
    • Nicholas Thomas-Peter,
    • Marco Barbieri,
    • W. Steven Kolthammer,
    • Xian-Min Jin,
    • Brian J. Smith &
    • Ian A. Walmsley
  2. Dipartmento di Scienze, Universitá degli Studi Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146, Rome, Italy

    • Marco Barbieri
  3. State Key Laboratory of Advanced Optical Communication Systems and Networks, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China

    • Xian-Min Jin
  4. Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, PO Box 5046, 2600 GA Delft, Netherlands

    • Nathan K. Langford
  5. Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ, UK

    • Dmytro Kundys,
    • James C. Gates &
    • Peter G. R. Smith
  6. School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL, UK

    • Dmytro Kundys

Contributions

B.J.M., J.B.S., P.C.H., N.T.-P., N.K.L. and I.A.W. all contributed to designing and setting up the experiment. B.J.M. performed the experiment. J.B.S. designed the FPGA electronics and helped with data taking. D.K. and J.C.G. fabricated the waveguide device. X-M.J., W.S.K., M.B., P.C.H., J.B.S. and B.J.M. all contributed to analysis of the data. B.J.M wrote the manuscript with input from all authors. B.J.S., P.G.R.S. and I.A.W. conceived the work and supervised the project.

Competing financial interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

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