Table of contents



3D goes mainstream p1




Are optical transistors the logical next step? pp3 - 5

David A. B. Miller



Research Highlights

Our choice from the recent literature pp6 - 7



News and Views

Microresonators: Particle sizing by mode splitting pp9 - 10

Tobias J. Kippenberg


Silicon photonics: On-chip OPOs pp10 - 12

Jeremy Witzens, Thomas Baehr-Jones & Michael Hochberg


Quantum optics: Multicolour entanglement pp12 - 13

Joseph H. Eberly & John C. Howell


Ultrafast optics: Single-cycle pulse generation pp14 - 15

Uwe Morgner


Relativity: Speed of light in the quantum foam p15

David Pile


Correction p16


View from... frontiers in optics 2009/laser science XXV: X-ray race p16

David Pile




Synthesis of a single cycle of light with compact erbium-doped fibre technology pp33 - 36

Günther Krauss, Sebastian Lohss, Tobias Hanke, Alexander Sell, Stefan Eggert, Rupert Huber & Alfred Leitenstorfer


Based on a passively phase-locked superposition of a dispersive wave and a soliton from two branches of a femtosecond Er-doped fibre laser, researchers demonstrate that single cycles of light can be achieved using existing fibre technology and standard free-space components. The pulses have a pulse duration of 4.3 fs, close to the shortest possible value for a data bit of information transmitted in the near-infrared.

Subject Categories: Lasers, LEDs and light sources | Nonlinear optics | Ultrafast photonics

See also: News and Views by Morgner

CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects pp37 - 40

Jacob S. Levy, Alexander Gondarenko, Mark A. Foster, Amy C. Turner-Foster, Alexander L. Gaeta & Michal Lipson


A monolithically integrated CMOS-compatible source is demonstrated using an optical parametric oscillator based on a silicon nitride ring resonator on silicon. Generating more than 100 wavelengths simultaneously and operating at powers below 50 mW, scientists say that it may form the basis of an on-chip high-bandwidth optical network.

Subject Categories: Lasers, LEDs and light sources | Nonlinear optics | Fibre optics and optical communications

See also: News and Views by Witzens et al.

CMOS-compatible integrated optical hyper-parametric oscillator pp41 - 45

L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, M. Ferrera, R. Morandotti, S. Chu, B. E. Little & D. J. Moss


Through optical ‘hyper-parametric’ oscillation in a high-index silica glass microring resonator, scientists demonstrate a fully integrated CMOS-compatible low-loss multiple-wavelength source that has high differential slope efficiency at only a few tens of milliwatts of continuous-wave power. The achievement has significant implications for telecommunications and on-chip optical interconnects in computers.

Subject Categories: Lasers, LEDs and light sources | Nonlinear optics | Fibre optics and optical communications

See also: News and Views by Witzens et al.

On-chip single nanoparticle detection and sizing by mode splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator pp46 - 49

Jiangang Zhu, Sahin Kaya Ozdemir, Yun-Feng Xiao, Lin Li, Lina He, Da-Ren Chen & Lan Yang


Utilizing a self-referenced detection scheme based on the mode-splitting in an ultrahigh-Q microresonator, scientists realize the real-time in situ detection and sizing of single nanoparticles with radii as small as 30 nm. Labelling of the particles and a priori information on the presence of nanoparticles in the medium are not required, thus providing an effective platform for studying nanoparticles at the single-particle resolution level.

Subject Categories: Imaging and sensing | Novel materials and engineered structures | Nanophotonics

See also: News and Views by Kippenberg

Generation of molecular hot electroluminescence by resonant nanocavity plasmons pp50 - 54

Z. C. Dong, X. L. Zhang, H. Y. Gao, Y. Luo, C. Zhang, L. G. Chen, R. Zhang, X. Tao, Y. Zhang, J. L. Yang & J. G. Hou


Nanocavity plasmons are exploited as a coherent optical source with tunable energy and to actively control the radiative channels of molecules. Intense resonance enhancement of both excitation and emission, in an effect called resonant hot-electroluminescence, is demonstrated for porphyrin molecules confined inside a nanocavity.

Subject Categories: Lasers, LEDs and light sources | Plasmonics

Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy pp55 - 57

Birgitta Bernhardt, Akira Ozawa, Patrick Jacquet, Marion Jacquey, Yohei Kobayashi, Thomas Udem, Ronald Holzwarth, Guy Guelachvili, Theodor W. Hänsch & Nathalie Picqué


By combining Fourier transform spectroscopy with two frequency-shifted combs and cavity ring-down spectroscopy, scientists demonstrate a powerful new tool for ultrahigh sensitivity spectroscopy. The scheme can measure broadband, high-resolution spectra in tens of microseconds, does not require detector arrays and may allow tuning from terahertz to ultraviolet frequencies.

Subject Category: Spectroscopy



An optical ultrafast random bit generator pp58 - 61

Ido Kanter, Yaara Aviad, Igor Reidler, Elad Cohen & Michael Rosenbluh


The generation of random bit sequences at a data rate of up to 300 Gbit s−1 — a rate many orders of magnitude faster than previously achieved — is realized by exploiting the output of a chaotic semiconductor laser. The randomness of the generated bits is verified by standard statistical tests.

Subject Categories: Fibre optics and optical communications | Optoelectronic devices and components



Single-cycle light p62

Interview with Alfred Leitenstorfer



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