Letter abstract

Nature Nanotechnology 5, 275 - 279 (2010)
Published online: 28 February 2010 | doi:10.1038/nnano.2010.17

Subject terms: Nanosensors and other devices | Photonic structures and devices

Lipid multilayer gratings

Steven Lenhert1,2,3, Falko Brinkmann1,2, Thomas Laue1, Stefan Walheim1,4, Christoph Vannahme5, Soenke Klinkhammer6, Miao Xu1, Sylwia Sekula1, Timo Mappes5, Thomas Schimmel1,4 & Harald Fuchs1,2,7

The interaction of electromagnetic waves with matter can be controlled by structuring the matter on the scale of the wavelength of light, and various photonic components have been made by structuring materials using top-down or bottom-up approaches1, 2, 3, 4, 5. Dip-pen nanolithography is a scanning-probe-based fabrication technique that can be used to deposit materials on surfaces with high resolution and, when carried out in parallel, with high throughput6, 7, 8. Here, we show that lyotropic optical diffraction gratings—composed of biofunctional lipid multilayers with controllable heights between ~5 and 100 nm—can be fabricated by lipid dip-pen nanolithography. Multiple materials can be simultaneously written into arbitrary patterns on pre-structured surfaces to generate complex structures and devices, allowing nanostructures to be interfaced by combinations of top-down and bottom-up fabrication methods. We also show that fluid and biocompatible lipid multilayer gratings allow label-free and specific detection of lipid–protein interactions in solution. This biosensing capability takes advantage of the adhesion properties of the phospholipid superstructures and the changes in the size and shape of the grating elements that take place in response to analyte binding.

  1. Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76021 Karlsruhe, Germany
  2. Physikalisches Institut, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität, and Center for Nanotechnology (CeNTech), 48149 Münster, Germany
  3. Department of Biological Science and Integrative NanoScience Institute, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306-4370, USA
  4. Institute of Applied Physics, Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76128 Karlsruhe, Germany
  5. Institut für Mikrostrukturtechnik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76128 Karlsruhe, Germany
  6. Light Technology Institute, and Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76128 Karlsruhe, Germany
  7. Department of Nanobio Materials and Electronics, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju, Korea

Correspondence to: Steven Lenhert1,2,3 e-mail: lenhert@bio.fsu.edu


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