Letter abstract


Nature Nanotechnology 5, 186 - 189 (2010)
Published online: 17 January 2010 | Corrected online: 23 February 2010 | doi:10.1038/nnano.2009.474

Subject Categories: Electronic properties and devices | Nanomaterials | Nanometrology and instrumentation

Towards a quantum resistance standard based on epitaxial graphene

Alexander Tzalenchuk1, Samuel Lara-Avila2, Alexei Kalaboukhov2, Sara Paolillo3, Mikael Syväjärvi4, Rositza Yakimova4, Olga Kazakova1, T. J. B. M. Janssen1, Vladimir Fal'ko5 & Sergey Kubatkin2


The quantum Hall effect1 allows the international standard for resistance to be defined in terms of the electron charge and Planck's constant alone. The effect comprises the quantization of the Hall resistance in two-dimensional electron systems in rational fractions of RK = h/e2 = 25 812.807 557(18) , the resistance quantum2. Despite 30 years of research into the quantum Hall effect, the level of precision necessary for metrology—a few parts per billion—has been achieved only in silicon and iiiv heterostructure devices3, 4, 5. Graphene should, in principle, be an ideal material for a quantum resistance standard6, because it is inherently two-dimensional and its discrete electron energy levels in a magnetic field (the Landau levels7) are widely spaced. However, the precisions demonstrated so far have been lower than one part per million8. Here, we report a quantum Hall resistance quantization accuracy of three parts per billion in monolayer epitaxial graphene at 300 mK, four orders of magnitude better than previously reported. Moreover, by demonstrating the structural integrity and uniformity of graphene over hundreds of micrometres, as well as reproducible mobility and carrier concentrations across a half-centimetre wafer, these results boost the prospects of using epitaxial graphene in applications beyond quantum metrology.

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  1. National Physical Laboratory, TW11 0LW Teddington, UK
  2. Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, S-412 96 Göteborg, Sweden
  3. Department of Physics, Politecnico di Milano, 20133 Milano, Italy
  4. Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, S-581 83 Linköping, Sweden
  5. Physics Department, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB, UK

Correspondence to: Alexander Tzalenchuk1 e-mail: alexander.tzalenchuk@npl.co.uk

* In the version of this Letter initially published online, in the penultimate sentence of the first paragraph, '26 meV' should have been '36 meV'. This error has been corrected in all versions of the text.

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