Article abstract

Nature Nanotechnology 4, 861 - 867 (2009)
Published online: 20 September 2009 | doi:10.1038/nnano.2009.267

Subject Categories: Electronic properties and devices | NEMS

Performance of monolayer graphene nanomechanical resonators with electrical readout

Changyao Chen1,6, Sami Rosenblatt2,6, Kirill I. Bolotin3, William Kalb1, Philip Kim3, Ioannis Kymissis2, Horst L. Stormer3,4,5, Tony F. Heinz2,3 & James Hone1

The enormous stiffness and low density of graphene make it an ideal material for nanoelectromechanical applications. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication and electrical readout of monolayer graphene resonators, and test their response to changes in mass and temperature. The devices show resonances in the megahertz range, and the strong dependence of resonant frequency on applied gate voltage can be fitted to a membrane model to yield the mass density and built-in strain of the graphene. Following the removal and addition of mass, changes in both density and strain are observed, indicating that adsorbates impart tension to the graphene. On cooling, the frequency increases, and the shift rate can be used to measure the unusual negative thermal expansion coefficient of graphene. The quality factor increases with decreasing temperature, reaching approx1  times  104 at 5 K. By establishing many of the basic attributes of monolayer graphene resonators, the groundwork for applications of these devices, including high-sensitivity mass detectors, is put in place.

  1. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Columbia University, New York 10027, USA
  2. Department of Electrical Engineering, Columbia University, New York 10027, USA
  3. Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York 10027, USA
  4. Department of Applied Physics, Columbia University, New York 10027, USA
  5. Bell Labs, Alcatel-Lucent, Murray Hill, New Jersey 07974, USA
  6. These authors contributed equally to this work

Correspondence to: James Hone1 e-mail:


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