Review abstract

Nature Nanotechnology 3, 465 - 475 (2008)
Published online: 27 July 2008 | doi:10.1038/nnano.2008.190

Subject Categories: Molecular machines and motors | Nanobiotechnology

Harnessing biological motors to engineer systems for nanoscale transport and assembly

Anita Goel1,2 & Viola Vogel3

Living systems use biological nanomotors to build life's essential molecules—such as DNA and proteins—as well as to transport cargo inside cells with both spatial and temporal precision. Each motor is highly specialized and carries out a distinct function within the cell. Some have even evolved sophisticated mechanisms to ensure quality control during nanomanufacturing processes, whether to correct errors in biosynthesis or to detect and permit the repair of damaged transport highways. In general, these nanomotors consume chemical energy in order to undergo a series of shape changes that let them interact sequentially with other molecules. Here we review some of the many tasks that biomotors perform and analyse their underlying design principles from an engineering perspective. We also discuss experiments and strategies to integrate biomotors into synthetic environments for applications such as sensing, transport and assembly.

  1. Nanobiosym Labs, 200 Boston Avenue, Suite 4700, Medford, Massachusetts 02155 USA
  2. Department of Physics, Harvard University, Massachusetts 02138, USA
  3. Department of Materials, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang Pauli Strasse 10. HCI F443, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland

Correspondence to: Anita Goel1,2 e-mail:

Correspondence to: Viola Vogel3 e-mail:


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